2018 Mitacs Global Research Internships

Sustaining the Knowledge Commons (SKC) is pleased to offer 1 – 2 open access research oriented 2018 summer internships for international undergraduate students through the competitive Mitacs Globalinks Research Internship program. The call for 2018 applications is now open. Following is a brief description of the Mitacs Globalink Research Internship and the SKC internship project.

The Mitacs Globalink Research Internship

From the Mitacs website: “The Mitacs Globalink Research Internship is a competitive initiative for international undergraduates from Australia, Brazil, China, France, India, Germany, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and Ukraine. From May to September of each year, top-ranked applicants participate in a 12-week research internship under the supervision of Canadian university faculty members in a variety of academic disciplines, from science, engineering and mathematics to the humanities and social sciences.

Mitacs Globalink Research Internships are currently available at over 45 universities across Canada. For more information, please click on “Information for Students” to see the list of universities hosting Globalink interns in 2017.

Globalink Research Internship alumni interested in returning to Canada for graduate studies are eligible for the Globalink Graduate Fellowship.​

For further information or to submit an application, go to:

https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-internship


The Sustaining the Knowledge Commons internership: details

The research

The central idea driving this research is that humanity collectively shares all of our knowledge. Everyone should thus be able to access scholarly works free of charge and everyone capable should be welcome to contribute to the knowledge commons. We study alternative economic approaches, for example the commons and the gift. We do quantitative research on costs related to producing a scholarly article. We also do qualitative research, talking with the directors of scholarly journals about the resources required for journals to be open access. The approach is one of open research; to learn more: sustainingknowledgecommons.org

Description

There is a broad consensus among researchers, librarians, research funding agencies, non-governmental organizations and even most scholarly publishers that today the optimum method of sharing the results of research is open access, that is, articles, books and data that are freely available through the internet. The dilemma is how to transform a system based on demand (subscriptions and purchases) to a system based on production in order to sustain free access for the reader. Sustaining the knowledge commons targets the means of transformation by studying the models used by open access scholarly journals (for example, article processing fees or subsidies).

Thanks to a generous grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, we are a team in the process of growth consisting of the principal investigator and several students, most of whom are at the doctoral level. We are conducting a longitudinal study using an innovative open research approach. We publish our data and results as part of the work process. The idea is to facilitate research in this area (other researchers use our data, for example) and to speed up knowledge translation, because there are organizations that want to accelerate the transformation process by using their funds, like the signatories of OA 2020 http://oa2020.org/

Skills required

Preferred: knowledge of open access and/or open science, experience with academic writing, social media, research processes, teamwork. Attention to detail (e.g. research data gathering and management, analysis of large datasets with tools like the open source data statistical package JASP or PSPP) is desirable. French / English bilingualism, and/or other languages, would be an asset.

Français

2018 Stage de recherche Mitacs Globalinks

Soutenir les Savoirs Communs (SSC) offre avec plaisir 1 – 2 stages d’été de recherche en libre accès pour les étudiants internationaux, grâce a la competition <<Programme de stages de recherche Globalink de Mitacs>>. L’appel d’offre destiné aux étudiants est maintenant ouvert. Une description du programme et du stage de SSC suivent.

Le Programme de stages de recherche Globalink, de site web de Mitacs:

<<Le Programme de stages de recherche Globalink est un concours qui s’adresse aux étudiants de premier cycle de l’Allemagne, de l’Arabie saoudite, de l’Australie, du Brésil, de la Chine, de la France, de l’Inde, du Mexique, de la Tunisie et de l’Ukraine. De mai à septembre de chaque année, les candidats de premier rang participent à un stage de recherche de 12 semaines sous la supervision de professeurs d’universités canadiennes dans diverses disciplines, des sciences et de l’ingénierie, aux mathématiques et aux sciences humaines et sciences sociales.

Des stages de recherche Mitacs Globalink sont actuellement offerts dans plus de 45 universités au Canada. Pour de plus amples renseignements, veuillez cliquer sur « Information pour les étudiants » pour consulter la liste des universités offrant des stages Globalink en 2017.

Les anciens stagiaires de recherche du programme Globalink qui désirent revenir au Canada pour poursuivre des études universitaires supérieures sont admissibles à une Bourse aux cycles supérieurs Globalink.>>

Plus d’information pour étudiants et le lien pour déposer une candidature se trouvent à: https://www.mitacs.ca/fr/programmes/globalink/stage-de-recherche-mitacs-globalink


Détails du projet de Soutenir les Savoirs Communs

La recherche

L’idée centrale de cette recherche est que l’humanité partage la somme de nos connaissances. Que tout le monde peut accéder aux œuvres savantes gratuitement. Que toute personne capable peut contribuer au savoir commun. Nous étudions des approches économiques alternatives, par exemple les communs et le don. Nous faisons de la recherche quantitative – quels sont les coûts de production des articles savants? Nous faisons aussi de la recherche qualitative, en discutant avec les directeurs des revues savantes des ressources requises pour que les publications puissent être en libre accès. L’approche utilisée est la recherche ouverte. Pour savoir plus: sustainingknowledgecommons.org

Description du projet de la recherche

ll y a un large consensus parmi les chercheurs, les bibliothécaires, les organismes subventionnaires, les organismes non gouvernementaux et même la plupart des maisons d’édition, qu’aujourd’hui la méthode optimale de partage des résultats de recherches est la publication en libre accès, ce qui signifie que les articles, livres, et données sont disponibles gratuitement sur l’internet. Le dilemme consiste en comment transformer un système basé sur la demande (abonnements et achats) en un système basé sur la production afin de soutenir l’accès gratuit aux revues scientifiques pour le lecteur. Le projet Soutenir les savoirs communs analyse ces transformations en étudiant les modèles utilisés par les revues savantes en libre accès (par exemple, les frais de publication ou les subventions).

Grâce à une subvention généreuse du Conseil de recherche en sciences humaines, nous sommes une équipe grandissante qui comprend la chercheuse principale et quelques étudiants, la plupart au troisième cycle. Nous faisons une étude longitudinale en utilisant l’approche innovatrice de la recherche ouverte : nous publions nos données et nos résultats en processus de travail. L’idée est de faciliter la recherche (d’autres chercheurs utilisent nos données, par exemple) et d’accélérer le transfert des connaissances, en lien avec les organismes qui veulent accélérer la transformation en libre accès en utilisant leurs fonds, comme les signataires de OA2020 http://oa2020.org/ <http://oa2020.org/>

Les compétences requises

Préférable: Connaissance du libre accès et /ou science ouverte, expérience en rédaction universitaire, médias sociaux, processus de recherche et/ou travail en équipe sont préférables. Il est aussi souhaité que le participant ait le souci du détail (par exemple, travail impliquant la gestion de métadonnées et d’analyse de données massives à l’aide de logiciel de statistique (JASP ou PSPP). Le bilinguisme anglais-français, et/ou autres langues, serait un atout.

Rôle de l’interne

Travaillant sous la supervision de la chercheuse principale, l’étudiant, membre de l’équipe de recherche, sera invité à remplir les tâches suivantes : collectes de données (processus de recherche quantitatif), revues de la littérature, analyse de données en utilisant les statistiques descriptives, rédaction de textes pour le blogue officiel du projet, rédaction de demandes de subvention pour la recherche, participation aux analyses des données, contributions aux articles et aux présentations. Le tout s’effectue dans un esprit collaboratif, et le participant sera supporté par la chercheuse principale de même que par les autres membres de l’équipe de recherche. Nous partageons nos résultats en discutons en petits groupes informels. C’est une excellente formation pour l’étudiant qui s’intéresse aux processus de la recherche scientifique, qui lui permettra d’acquérir un niveau d’expérience de recherche qui constituera une base excellente pour les études de deuxième cycle. L’étudiant développera de plus des compétences certaines en gestion et en analyse des données. Il se familiarisera avec les outils de la recherche tels que les logiciels d’analyse statistique (JASP), de bureautique (Excel) et de publication web (WordPress). Ces compétences sont essentielles au professionnel actuel, peu importe sa spécialisation.

English

Copernicus APCs 2017: mostly stable, some new APCs, one price increase

Most of Copernicus’ 52 journals have not changed in price since 2016, and many indicate that the current price has been in place for several years.

4 journals have either clarified pricing, introduced an APC, or increased in price since 2016:

Annales Geophysicae increased their per-page price from 45 to 60 EUR in January 2017 (33% increase)

Archives of Animal Breeding waived fees in 2016 but now charges 55 EUR per page.

Earth System Dynamics: price information was not found in 2016, as of today indicates a cost of 50 EUR per page as of July 2017.

Wind Energy Science waived fees in 2016 but now charges 69 EUR per page, since Nov. 2, 2016.

7 Copernicus journals indicate that the cost is “currently waived”, hence presumably plan to introduce page charges in future: Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography, Earth System Science Data, Geographica Helvetica (subsidized by Swiss Academy of Science), Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, SOIL, and Web Ecology.

Only 1 Copernicus journal, Scientific Drilling, is “free of charge”, sponsored by International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

2016 OA APC longitudinal study data and documentation: now published

Now published in Data: http://www.mdpi.com/2306-5729/2/2/13

Morrison, H.; Brutus, W.; Dumais-Desrosiers, M.; Kakou, T.L.; Laprade, K.; Merhi, S.; Ouerghi, A.; Salhab, J.; Volkanova, V.; Wheatley, S. Open Access Article Processing Charges (OA APC) Longitudinal Study 2016 Dataset. Data 2017, 2, 13. doi:10.3390/data2020013

Abstract

This article documents Open access article processing charges (OA APC) Main 2016. This dataset was developed as part of a longitudinal study of the minority (about a third) of the fully open access journals that use the APC business model. APC data for 2016, 2015, 2014, and 2013 are primarily obtained from publishers’ websites, a process that requires analytic skill as many publishers offer a diverse range of pricing options, including multiple currencies and/or differential pricing by article type, length or work involved and/or discounts for author contributions to editing or the society publisher or based on perceived ability to pay. This version of the dataset draws heavily from the work of Walt Crawford, and includes his entire 2011–2015 dataset; in particular Crawford’s work has made it possible to confirm “no publication fee” status for a large number of journals. DOAJ metadata for 2016 and 2014 and a 2010 APC sample provided by Solomon and Björk are part of the dataset. Inclusion of DOAJ metadata and article counts by Crawford and Solomon and Björk provide a basis for studies of factors such as journal size, subject, or country of publication that might be worth testing for correlation with business model and/or APC size.

To download data: doi:10.5683/SP/KC2NBV

Preprint and initial data version previously announced here.

Errata

As we continue to gather data for the 2017 longitudinal study and conduct additional quality assurance processes in the course of data analysis any errata discovered in the data will be noted here and corrected.

A version 2 of the dataset is now available in the OA APC dataverse. This version corrects AOSIS publication fee data. APPC data (article page processing charges) were incorrectly identified as APCs in 2015 and 2016. The errors would have resulted in incorrect data suggesting a significant price reduction since 2010. The corrected data will result in slight changes in the numbers and percentage of journals with APCs and APPCs in 2016.

 

2010 – 2016 APC journals comparison: attrition rate

In brief: our evidence suggests an average attrition rate of APC-charging journals of approximately 1.5% – 2% per year, depending on whether one includes or excludes the anomaly of a particular business model of a new publisher (Bentham Open) starting off with a very large number of journals and retaining only successful titles.

Abstract

Solomon and Björk (2012) conducted a survey in 2010 of APCs based on a sample of 1,090 APC-charging journals that were listed in DOAJ at that time. Not all APC-charging journals in DOAJ as of 2010 were included; no journals listed in DOAJ as of 2010 that did not charge APCs were included. We compared this data with our 2016 APC survey (Morrison et al, 2017).

Of the 1,090 titles, 32 titles were published by publishers that have never been included in our longitudinal APC survey. Our survey is not limited to DOAJ, but is limited to fully OA journals that either have been listed in DOAJ in 2014, 2015, or 2016, or whose publishers have been listed in DOAJ in 2014, 2015, or 2016. Excluding the 32 titles, of the 1,058 titles studied, 849 are confirmed active in 2016, and 209 are discontinued or presumed discontinued for an attrition rate of 20% from 2010 – 2016. However it is important to note that Bentham Open is a significant anomaly, accounting for 123 of the discontinued titles from 2010 – 2016 and 4 of the discontinued titles from 2015 – 2016. Excluding these journals, the attrition rate is 82 / 935 journals or 9% over the 6 year period.

The attrition rate for 2015 – 2016 for journals studied in 2010 is 2%, or 19 of the 868 journals studied in 2015 found to be inactive in 2016. Note that 4 of these journals (25% of the total) are Bentham Open journals.

The Bentham Open anomaly reflects a particular business practice. This fairly new publisher has taken the approach of creating a large number of journals at once and appears to be retaining titles that are successful. That is, Bentham Open’s high numbers of discontinued journals need to be assessed in light of the total number of journals. In 2010, Bentham Open accounted for 211 of the 1,090 journals studied. Of these, 84 journals were active in 2016. In other words, the number of discontinued journals does not necessarily reflect an unsuccessful publisher.

In conclusion, the evidence appears to suggest an average attrition rate of about 1.5% – 2% of APC charging journals sampled, depending on whether we include or exclude the anomaly of a publisher model of starting with a large number of journals on speculation and retaining only successful titles.

Details

2010 to 2016 comparison attrition

References

Morrison, Heather; Brutus, Widlyne; Dumais-Desrosier, Myriam; Laprade, Katherine; Merhi, Salah; Ouerghi, Arbia; Salhab, Jihane; Volkanova, Victoria; Wheatley, Sara, 2017, “Open access article processing charges 2016”, doi:10.5683/SP/KC2NBV, Scholars Portal Dataverse, V2

Solomon, D. J. & Björk, B.-C. (2012) A study of open access journals using article processing charges. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2012, 63, 1485–1495. Available online: http://www.openaccesspublishing.org/apc2/preprint.pdf

APCs in DOAJ 2017: summary of 3 studies

The DOAJ application form requests information from journals and publishers about article processing charges: whether or not there are charges, if yes the amount and currency, and a URL for more information. Is DOAJ APC data sufficient for the purposes of our longitudinal study on APC charges? In brief, we compared the APCs on publisher website for 3 publishers and conclude that no, DOAJ APC is not sufficient. There are significant differences between APC data on the websites of publishers Hindawi, MDPI, and Taylor & Francis. Conclusion: APC details in DOAJ are not sufficient for the longitudinal study of APC.

Details in brief and links to substantive posts

We used the DOAJ metadata as of Jan. 31, 2017 (our DOAJ metadata set for the 2017 APC study) for these studies.

Widlyne Brutus compared journal and APC data for Hindawi on the Hindawi website and in DOAJ – not an easy task as the title lists in DOAJ and on the Hindawi website are quite different. DOAJ includes titles that Hindawi no longer publishes (a good practice but this makes research a challenge), but not all of the titles that Hindawi currently does publish. Hindawi titles have a high rate of APC listings in DOAJ, but only 9% of the titles have the same price in DOAJ and on the publisher’s website. 144 titles have higher prices on the publisher’s website, while 45 have a lower price on the publisher’s website. Details: https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2017/03/14/hindawi-apc-le-site-web-dhindawi-versu-le-repertoire-du-doaj/

Arbia Ouerghi found that 107 MDPI titles listed in DOAJ have an APC according to the MDPI website. DOAJ has APC data for only 21 of these journals, and only 3 have the same price on the MDPI website and in DOAJ. APCs on the MDPI website are higher than those listed in DOAJ. Details: https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2017/03/02/comparaison-doaj-et-mdpi-titres-et-apc/

Katherine Laprade found 150 fully OA titles on the Taylor and Francis website. 77% of these titles have an APC according to the Taylor & Francis website, but only 1% have an APC listed in DOAJ. Of these titles, 54% have a different amount in DOAJ as compared with the publisher’s website. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2017/03/28/taylor-francis-2017-data/

Comment (Heather Morrison): the question about whether journals charge an APC or not is a useful one, however the answer based on our research is more complex than a simple yes / no. DOAJ used to have a “conditional” charges option that I recommend re-instating. As we noted in 2014 (Morrison et al, 2015), the vast majority of fully OA journals (over 90%) have variations in pricing based on such factors as the status of the author (society member, editing contributions to the journal, location, perceived ability to pay), and the nature of the work (length, quality, type of article). A single flat-fee approach to APC does exist but is not that common. Collecting specific APC information and keeping it up to date will depend on publishers updating DOAJ every time there is a price change. It seems likely that DOAJ’s APC information will become more and more outdated over time. The yes / no / conditional information and link to where to find the information seem likely to be stable and useful, but DOAJ and its user community might want to reconsider the costs and benefits of capturing specific APC amounts.

Reference

Morrison, H.; Salhab, J.; Calvé-Genest, A.; Horava, T. Open Access Article Processing Charges: DOAJ Survey May 2014. Publications 2015, 3, 1-16. doi:10.3390/publications3010001

Ottawa open access workshop April 1

If you are in Ottawa on Saturday, April 1, please join the open access class for an all-day workshop on OA. Registration is free, but appreciated if you plan to join us for lunch. Details and a link to register can be found here: https://oa20171avril.wordpress.com/2017/03/18/all-day-open-access-workshop-at-university-of-ottawa/

Thanks to students of ISI 6300, a new master’s-level special topics course on open access, for organizing the event. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons is one of the sponsors.