Open to closed: how releasing government data into the public domain can result in loss of free public access

Boettcher & Dames (2018) raise some important issues regarding public domain government data. In brief, the U.S. federal government releases data into the public domain by default. This raises 2 potential types of issues:
  • privacy and security of individuals’ data
  • potential for enclosure / privatization of free public services if the government’s data is released as open data but the government does not maintain a free human readable version
From:
Boettcher, J. C., & Dames, K. M. (2018). Government Data as Intellectual Property: Is Public Domain the same as Open Access? Online Searcher42(4), 42–48.

https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/1051174

Abstract
Public domain and open data policies and how they are made. Current status of open data policies in the Federal government are changing with new laws. What is HR4174/S4047 and what does it say and mean? What are trends in government data policies regarding access to that statistical data? This article will give the reader an understanding of federal policies and laws regarding data.

Science, let’s talk: your friend, all other knowledges

The purpose of the Sustaining the Knowledge Commons research program is to help in the process of transitioning to a stable global knowledge commons, through which everyone can access all of our collective knowledge free-of-charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions and to which all who are qualified are welcome to contribute. One common problem that I see in the open access movement and in the scientific community (OA or not) is a tendency to conflate knowledge and science. I argue that this is a serious problem not only for other forms of knowledge, but a potential immanent existential threat to science itself. At a recent talk I presented a brief explanation of the argument. Following is the abstract and a link to the full presentation.

Presentation by Heather Morrison Feb. 26, University of Ottawa, as part of the CC- UNESCO Science as a Human Right Series.

Abstract

Article 27.1 of the UN Declaration on Human Rights states that “Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits”. The central argument of this presentation is that in order to achieve the goal of scientific advancement and its benefits it is necessary to understand science as one of the interdependent forms of the knowledge of humankind. To understand human rights, we need to understand the current and historical struggles through which the needs for human rights were identified and fought for. The conceptual development and implementation of human rights comes from philosophy, law, and politics, not scientific method. Science itself cannot function without logic, and is best not practiced without ethics; both logic and ethics, essential to scientific practice, are philosophy. Science needs philosophy.

Climate change is presented as evidence of why global policy based on scientific evidence is essential to the future, perhaps the very survival of the human species, and why global policy based on scientific evidence depends on more than science alone. If science alone were enough, the scientific consensus on climate change should have compelled effective action a long time ago. Science alone is not enough; political change requires political action. In the area of policy, belief in progress through science is just that, a matter of belief that competes with other belief systems. To help people change, to achieve political change, we need to understand not just what we know (the science), we need to understand how people think (social sciences and humanities) and how to effectively communicate with people (arts). If we in the developed world were to learn from our First Nations peoples about long-term planning, the ideas that we do not inherent the world from our ancestors but rather borrow it from our children, to plan for the seventh generation, we would have the knowledge to understand why we need policy in this area that is informed by the science. In conclusion, as a holistic scholar who is indigenous to, and cares above, the planet earth, on behalf of all the other forms of knowledges, I extend this invitation to science: let’s talk.

Link to download the full presentation: https://ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/38890

Acknowledging a downside to APC: opening up scholars and scholarship to exploitation

Brainard (2019) in an April 3, 2019 article in Science, reports that a U.S. judge has ruled that a “deceptive” publisher [OMICS] should pay $50 million in damages. This is a timely opportunity to acknowledge a downside of the APC business model, that is, opening up scholarship to further commercial exploitation, including exploitation by publishers that do not or may not meet reasonable standards for academic quality and ethics in publishing, and to make recommendations to limit this potential for exploitation.

Abstract

The SKC team often focuses on the article processing charges (APC) business model for OA journal publishing, in order to observe and analyze trends. However, this focus is not an endorsement of either OA publishing (as opposed to OA archiving), or the APC business model that is used by a minority of fully OA journals. This post acknowledges a major downside to the APC model. APC “opens up” scholars and scholarly works for further commercial exploitation by traditional and new publishers that offers a wide range of quality in academic terms, ranging from excellent to mediocre and including a few with unethical practices that are not compatible with advancing our collective knowledge.This judge’s ruling provides an opportune moment to acknowledge this flaw in the APC business model, and to discuss potential remedies. I argue that it is essential for scholarly publishing to be scholar-led so that advancing scholarship is the primary priority. One model that I recommend as one to build on and expand is the SSHRC Aid to Scholarly Journals program. This program provides modest funding to scholarly journals that are under the direction of qualified Canadian academics. This funding is awarded through a competitive process that in effect serves as a journal-level academic peer review process. OA initiatives where key decisions are made by the research community (directly or through librarian representatives) are more likely to ensure high quality and ethical services than policies favouring and/or providing support for OA publishing with no clear vetting process of publication venues.

Details

There are downsides to any model for support of scholarly publishing. One important downside to the APC model is that it further “opens” scholars and scholarly works to exploitation for commercial purposes, including exploitation by publishers that do not meet academic standards for a variety of reasons ranging from lack to experience to deliberate deception. I do not personally evaluate or judge the quality of academic publishing. However, as Brainard (2019) reports, a U.S. judge has literally made a judgement in the case of OMICS.

Context

To understand how scholarly publishing has become vulnerable to this kind of exploitation, it is helpful to unravel the conflation of OA and OA publishing, and of OA publishing and the APC business model.

Open access (OA) is about access to the world’s scholarly knowledge. OA is not the same as OA publishing. There are 2 major approaches to OA; one is OA archiving, which is compatible with diverse publishing models. To get a sense of what has already been achieved through OA archiving, I recommend playing around with 2 major services. One is the Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE). BASE cross-searches over 6,000 archives around the world that collectively contain more than 140 million documents, 60% of which are OA. The other is the Internet Archive, which provides access to billions of webpages, videos, audio recordings, and over 20 million texts. If a classic text is out of copyright, it is probably available through the Internet Archive.

The majority of fully OA journals (73% of journals in DOAJ as of today) do not charge article processing charges (APCs). How do they manage? Small journals can often get by with in-kind support such as journal hosting, modest university, funder, and/or scholarly society subsidies, and/or collaborative library-based support (e.g. Knowledge Unlatched, Open Humanities Press).

As of today, OMICs is still active. There is reason to think that there are substantial numbers of APC based OA journals by publishers of unknown and potentially problematic academic quality. As I reported based on the 2018 survey of OA journals at ELPUB 2018, ” 5 of the largest publishers are no longer listed in DOAJ (Canadian Center of Science and Education, Internet Scientific Publications, LLC, Macrothink Institute, SCIENCEDOMAINInternational, and Scientific Research Publishing; Bentham Open is listed in DOAJ in 2017, but not 2018). (Morrison, 2018). There are a variety of reasons why publishers might not be included in DOAJ. Publishers may not have completed the re-application process. This would be understandable as (in my opinion) the questionnaire is onerous and specific questions do not entirely make sense. However, not meeting the DOAJ criteria does raise questions about the quality of the publisher, particularly if DOAJ itself is used as a means of assessing quality. Journals and publishers disappearing from DOAJ raise the question of the advisability of relying on DOAJ inclusion as a criteria for quality. In an author selects a journal in DOAJ today, assuming this assures quality publication, the journal might disappear from DOAJ later, possibly when the author is up for tenure and promotion and reviewers are taking quality of publication venues into account in making recommendations.

Scams and poor quality publishing is not strictly an OA problem. There are scam conferences that are not at all OA, and traditional publishers of journals and monographs have a wide range of quality. However, it is a downside of a particular model for OA, and I recommend that the OA movement acknowledge this and help find remedies. As noted above, my remedy is scholarly leadership of OA initiatives, that is key decisions made by scholars whose primary work is in the university or research sectors, as the best way to make sure that quality of academic work is the top priority.

References

Brainard, J. (2019). U.S. judge rules deceptive publisher should pay $50 million in damages. Science April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/04/us-judge-rules-deceptive-publisher-should-pay-501-million-damages

Morrison, H. (2018). Global OA APCs 2010 – 2017: major trends. Elpub 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2019 from https://elpub.episciences.org/4604/pdf

MDPI 2019: price increases, some hefty, and more coming in July

In brief: MDPI has increased prices, in many cases quite substantially (some prices have more than tripled). Even more price increases are anticipated in July 2019, which will have the effect of doubling the average APC and tripling the most common APC. Unlike other publishers’ practices, there are no price decreases.

Comment and recommendation: open access advocates, along with policy makers and research funders, and keen to support a transition to open access. In my opinion, the enthusiasm of payers to support APC journals is causing an unhealthy and unsustainable distortion in the market. My advice: stick with green OA policy. Require deposit of funded works in an open access repository. This is a better means to ensure ongoing preservation and open access, and exerts market pressure in a way that is more suited to the development of an economically sustainable open access system.

Details

Details, data, and links to very raw data follow. Comments and math-checking are most welcome.

February 2018 to February 2019.

MDPI lists 203 journals as of February 13, 2019. Of these, since this time last year, 74 or 36% have either started charging APCs, or have increased their APCs by 7% – 227% or 100 CHF – 1,250 CHF. For example, the APC of Cells rose from 550 to 1,800 CHF, a 227% increase, that is, the price more than tripled. As of today, according to XE Currency Converter, the CHF is worth .99 of USD, or very close to par. 17 journals are new. MDPI had no price decreases in 2019.

February to July 2019

MDPI lists price changes coming in July 2019 on their website (kudos for transparency). 160 of MDPI’s journals (79% of their journals) will have a price change in July 2019, either introducing an APC for the first time or increasing in price by 9% – 243% or 100 – 850 CHF. The net effect is a doubling or tripling of central tendencies. The average APC doubles from 546 CHF to 1,077 CHF. The median or mid-point and mode or most common APC triples from 350 CHF to 1,000 CHF. These figures exclude “free” journals, which are currently the mode or most common price.

MDPI Central Tendencies 2019 in CHF
Feb 2019 July 2019
Average APC 546 1,077
Median 350 1000
Mode 350 1000
Excludes “free” journals with no APC (yet).

MDPI journal price changes Feb. 2018 – Feb. 2019

Journal 2018 APC 2019 APC 2019 – 2018 in CHF 2019 / 2018 %
Cells 550 1800 1250 227%
Processes 350 1100 750 214%
Journal of Clinical Medicine 650 1800 1150 177%
Electronics (Basel) 550 1400 850 155%
Mathematics 350 850 500 143%
Biosensors 350 650 300 86%
Bioengineering (Basel) 300 550 250 83%
Insects 550 1000 450 82%
Microorganisms 550 1000 450 82%
Pharmaceutics 550 1000 450 82%
Agronomy 550 1000 450 82%
Cancers 1000 1800 800 80%
Atoms 350 550 200 57%
Computers 350 550 200 57%
Diseases 350 550 200 57%
Education Sciences 350 550 200 57%
Fibers 350 550 200 57%
Lubricants 350 550 200 57%
Machines 350 550 200 57%
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 350 550 200 57%
Diagnostics 550 850 300 55%
Geosciences 550 850 300 55%
Journal of Functional Biomaterials 550 850 300 55%
Animals 650 1000 350 54%
Biomolecules 650 1000 350 54%
Pathogens 650 1000 350 54%
Scientia Pharmaceutica 600 850 250 42%
Land 550 750 200 36%
Coatings 1200 1600 400 33%
Brain Sciences 650 850 200 31%
Forests 1400 1800 400 29%
Metals 1200 1500 300 25%
Catalysts 1300 1600 300 23%
Sustainability 1400 1700 300 21%
Toxins 1500 1800 300 20%
Buildings 550 650 100 18%
Foods 550 650 100 18%
Vaccines 550 650 100 18%
Behavioral Sciences 550 650 100 18%
Algorithms 850 1000 150 18%
Future Internet 850 1000 150 18%
Information 850 1000 150 18%
Membranes 850 1000 150 18%
Metabolites 850 1000 150 18%
Crystals 1200 1400 200 17%
Micromachines 1200 1400 200 17%
Minerals 1200 1400 200 17%
Symmetry 1200 1400 200 17%
Energies 1600 1800 200 13%
Genes 1600 1800 200 13%
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 1600 1800 200 13%
Materials 1600 1800 200 13%
Viruses 1600 1800 200 13%
Marine Drugs 1800 2000 200 11%
Nutrients 1800 2000 200 11%
Applied Sciences 1400 1500 100 7%
Entropy 1500 1600 100 7%
Nanomaterials 1500 1600 100 7%
Water 1500 1600 100 7%
Colloids and Interfaces 0 1000 1000 Price introduced in 2018
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 0 1000 1000 Price introduced in 2018
International Journal of Neonatal Screening 0 500 500 Price introduced in 2018
Batteries 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Beverages 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Fermentation 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Geriatrics 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Journal of Fungi 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Journal of Imaging 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Journal of Intelligence 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Magnetochemistry 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Medical Sciences 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Non-Coding RNA 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Safety 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 0 350 350 Price introduced in 2018
Actuators 350 350 0 No change
Administrative Sciences 350 350 0 No change
Antibiotics 550 550 0 No change
Antibodies 350 350 0 No change
Antioxidants 550 550 0 No change
Applied System Innovation 0 0 0 No change
Arts 0 0 0 No change
Atmosphere 1400 1400 0 No change
Axioms 350 350 0 No change
Big Data and Cognitive Computing 0 0 0 No change
Biology 650 650 0 No change
Biomedicines 550 550 0 No change
Biomimetics 0 0 0 No change
Ceramics 0 0 0 No change
Challenges 0 0 0 No change
ChemEngineering 0 0 0 No change
Chemosensors 350 350 0 No change
Climate 550 550 0 No change
Condensed Matter 0 0 0 No change
Cosmetics 350 350 0 No change
Cryptography 0 0 0 No change
Data 0 0 0 No change
Dentistry Journal 350 350 0 No change
Designs 0 0 0 No change
Diversity 850 850 0 No change
Drones 0 0 0 No change
Econometrics 350 350 0 No change
Economies 0 0 0 No change
Environments 300 300 0 No change
Fire 0 0 0 No change
Fishes 0 0 0 No change
Fluids 0 0 0 No change
Fractal and Fractional 0 0 0 No change
Galaxies 350 350 0 No change
Games 550 550 0 No change
Gels 0 0 0 No change
Genealogy 0 0 0 No change
Healthcare 550 550 0 No change
High-throughput 350 350 0 No change
Horticulturae 0 0 0 No change
Hydrology 350 350 0 No change
Infrastructures 0 0 0 No change
Instruments 0 0 0 No change
International Journal of Financial Studies 350 350 0 No change
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 1800 1800 0 No change
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power 300 300 0 No change
Inventions 0 0 0 No change
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 1000 1000 0 No change
Journal of Developmental Biology 350 350 0 No change
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 0 0 0 No change
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications 350 350 0 No change
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing 0 0 0 No change
Journal of Personalized Medicine 550 550 0 No change
Journal of Risk and Financial Management 350 350 0 No change
Languages 0 0 0 No change
Laws 350 350 0 No change
Life 650 650 0 No change
Logistics 0 0 0 No change
Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction 0 0 0 No change
Mathematical and Computational Applications 300 300 0 No change
Medicines 350 350 0 No change
Molbank 350 350 0 No change
Molecules 1800 1800 0 No change
Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 0 0 0 No change
Neuroglia 0 0 0 No change
Particles 0 0 0 No change
Pharmaceuticals 850 850 0 No change
Pharmacy 550 550 0 No change
Philosophies 0 0 0 No change
Photonics 350 350 0 No change
Plants 550 550 0 No change
Plasma 0 0 0 No change
Polymers 1500 1500 0 No change
Proteomes 550 550 0 No change
Publications 0 0 0 No change
Quantum Beam Science 0 0 0 No change
Quaternary 0 0 0 No change
Recycling 0 0 0 No change
Religions 550 550 0 No change
Remote Sensing 1800 1800 0 No change
Reports 0 0 0 No change
Resources 350 350 0 No change
Risks 350 350 0 No change
Robotics 350 350 0 No change
Sensors 1800 1800 0 No change
Separations 350 350 0 No change
Societies 350 350 0 No change
Sports 350 350 0 No change
Stats 0 0 0 No change
Systems 350 350 0 No change
Toxics 350 350 0 No change
Universe 350 350 0 No change
Urban Science 0 0 0 No change
Vibration 0 0 0 No change
Vision 0 0 0 No change
Aerospace (Basel) 550 550 0 No change
Agriculture 550 550 0 No change
C Ð Journal of Carbon Research (now C) 0 0 0 No change
Children (Basel) 550 550 0 No change
Computation (Basel) 350 350 0 No change
Epigenomes 0 0 0 No change
Humanities 350 350 0 No change
Informatics (Basel) 350 350 0 No change
Inorganics (Basel) 550 550 0 No change
Journal of Composite Sciences 0 0 0 No change
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks 350 350 0 No change
Methods and Protocol 0 0 0 No change
Social Sciences 350 350 0 No change
Soil 0 0 0 No change
Technologies (Basel) 350 350 0 No change
Veterinary Sciences 350 350 0 No change
Acoustics 0 New 2018
AgriEngineering 0 New 2018
Chemistry 1000 New 2018
Clocks & Sleep 0 New 2018
Forecasting 0 New 2018
Gastrointestinal Disorders 0 New 2018
Heritage 0 New 2018
J 0 New 2018
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 650 New 2018
Medicina 0 New 2018
Physics 0 New 2018
Psych 0 New 2018
Quantum Reports 0 New 2018
Sci 0 New 2018
Smart Cities 1000 New 2018
Surfaces 0 New 2018
World Electric Vehicle Journal 300 New 2018

MDPI journals with price increases or first APC introduced in July 2019

Journal Feb 2019 APC July 2019 APC July 2019 – 2019 (actually July 2018) July 2019 – 2018 %
Universe 350 1200 850 243%
Environments 300 1000 700 233%
Mathematical and Computational Applications 300 1000 700 233%
Actuators 350 1000 650 186%
Administrative Sciences 350 1000 650 186%
Antibodies 350 1000 650 186%
Axioms 350 1000 650 186%
Batteries 350 1000 650 186%
Beverages 350 1000 650 186%
Chemosensors 350 1000 650 186%
Cosmetics 350 1000 650 186%
Dentistry Journal 350 1000 650 186%
Econometrics 350 1000 650 186%
Fermentation 350 1000 650 186%
Galaxies 350 1000 650 186%
Geriatrics 350 1000 650 186%
High-throughput 350 1000 650 186%
Hydrology 350 1000 650 186%
International Journal of Financial Studies 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Developmental Biology 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Fungi 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Imaging 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Intelligence 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications 350 1000 650 186%
Journal of Risk and Financial Management 350 1000 650 186%
Laws 350 1000 650 186%
Magnetochemistry 350 1000 650 186%
Medical Sciences 350 1000 650 186%
Medicines 350 1000 650 186%
Molbank 350 1000 650 186%
Non-Coding RNA 350 1000 650 186%
Photonics 350 1000 650 186%
Resources 350 1000 650 186%
Risks 350 1000 650 186%
Robotics 350 1000 650 186%
Safety 350 1000 650 186%
Separations 350 1000 650 186%
Societies 350 1000 650 186%
Sports 350 1000 650 186%
Systems 350 1000 650 186%
Toxics 350 1000 650 186%
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 350 1000 650 186%
Antibiotics 550 1200 650 118%
Antioxidants 550 1200 650 118%
Plants 550 1200 650 118%
Vaccines 650 1400 750 115%
Foods 650 1200 550 85%
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power 300 550 250 83%
Atoms 550 1000 450 82%
Biomedicines 550 1000 450 82%
Climate 550 1000 450 82%
Computers 550 1000 450 82%
Diseases 550 1000 450 82%
Education Sciences 550 1000 450 82%
Fibers 550 1000 450 82%
Games 550 1000 450 82%
Healthcare 550 1000 450 82%
Journal of Personalized Medicine 550 1000 450 82%
Lubricants 550 1000 450 82%
Machines 550 1000 450 82%
Pharmacy 550 1000 450 82%
Proteomes 550 1000 450 82%
Religions 550 1000 450 82%
Pharmaceutics 1000 1600 600 60%
Biology 650 1000 350 54%
Biosensors 650 1000 350 54%
Buildings 650 1000 350 54%
Life 650 1000 350 54%
Mathematics 850 1200 350 41%
Metabolites 1000 1400 400 40%
Land 750 1000 250 33%
Pathogens 1000 1300 300 30%
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity 650 800 150 23%
Animals 1000 1200 200 20%
Biomolecules 1000 1200 200 20%
Insects 1000 1200 200 20%
Microorganisms 1000 1200 200 20%
Diagnostics 850 1000 150 18%
Diversity 850 1000 150 18%
Processes 1100 1200 100 9%
Medicina 0 1500 1,500 Price introduced July 2019
Acoustics 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
AgriEngineering 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Applied System Innovation 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Arts 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Big Data and Cognitive Computing 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Biomimetics 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Ceramics 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Challenges 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
ChemEngineering 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Clocks & Sleep 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Condensed Matter 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Cryptography 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Data 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Designs 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Drones 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Economies 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Fire 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Fishes 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Fluids 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Forecasting 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Fractal and Fractional 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Gastrointestinal Disorders 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Gels 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Genealogy 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Heritage 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Horticulturae 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Infrastructures 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Instruments 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Inventions 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Languages 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Logistics 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Neuroglia 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Particles 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Philosophies 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Physics 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Plasma 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Publications 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Quantum Beam Science 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Quantum Reports 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Quaternary 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Recycling 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Reports 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Sci 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Stats 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Surfaces 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Urban Science 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Vibration 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019
Vision 0 1000 1,000 Price introduced July 2019

The raw data: caution – these spreadsheets are sub-sets of working files that are provided with no documentation. Data literacy and familiarity with the APC longitudinal project are necessary for interpretation.

MDPI raw data Feb 2019

MDPI raw data July 2019

PLOS APCs 2018: 3 – 7% price increases

From December 2017 to December 2018, APC prices for all PLOS journals were increased by $100 USD, resulting in percentage increases from 3% – 7%. All price increase percentages are higher than the U.S. Department of Labour Statistic’s 2.2% Consumer Price Index increase from November 2017 – December 2018. The majority of percentage price increases (4/8) are higher than the average increase in a U.S. faculty member’s salary according to the American Association of University Professors of 3% (from April 2018). The most surprising increase from my perspective is the 7% increase to the APC of PLOS ONE (twice the increase of faculty salaries, thrice the US CIP increase), because as PLOS’ pioneering megajournal, PLOS ONE’s practice is peer review limited to assessing whether the science is sound. Peer review is done by volunteers and coordinated by PLOS using a highly automated approach; it is difficult to understand how PLOS’ contribution to PLOS ONE articles justifies an APC of approximately $1,600 USD.

Data

Journal title 2018 APC publisher website USD 2017 APC publisher website  USD 2018 price increase in USD 2018 price increase percentage
PLOS Biology 3,000 2900 100 3%
PLOS Computational Biology 2,350 2250 100 4%
PLOS Genetics 2,350 2250 100 4%
PLOS Medicine 3,000 2900 100 3%
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2,350 2250 100 4%
PLOS One 1,595 1495 100 7%
PLOS Pathogens 2,350 2250 100 4%

Elsevier in 2018: decrease in number of fully OA journals

Highlights: in 2017, we found that Elsevier was publishing a large number of fully open access journals with no article processing charges due to society or university sponsorships. In 2018, 88 of these titles have been transferred back to the society or university. There has been a drop in the number of fully OA journals published by Elsevier, from 416 to 328 journals. The majority of Elsevier’s fully OA journals are still non-charging. The average APC for Elsevier fully OA journals in 2018 is $1,470 USD, up 6% from 2017.

Raw data – 2 excel spreadsheets (caution – this is preliminary data that is designed for quantitative analysis and does not have detailed documentation). Click to download.

Elsevier_OA_main_2018_final_v1

This is a subset of the 2018 version of the main spreadsheet for the open access article processing charges project. The columns for the 2018 – 2017 comparison on the main Data tab are D, 2018 APC publisher website original currency, and N for 2017. Pricing is from the Elsevier APC price list; “no publication charge” is our standardized term, on the Elsevier PDF this is “Fee waived for author”. If you are interested in the journals that have transferred back to a society or university, go to the next spreadsheet:

Elsevier-noapc_2017_02_16_main_Updated_2018_10_27

In 2017 we noted that there are many Elsevier journals that are “fee waived for author” due to sponsorships and decided to begin tracking these sponsorships and an interesting model of partnership, e.g. statements on the Elsevier webpage that made it clear that Elsevier was publishing on behalf of a society or university that retained copyright. Column I, the notes field for 2018, is where you will find details on journals transferred back to the publisher. This information is gathered from the Elsevier website – journal title list, not the APC price list.

E2018numberjournals

Details

 In April 2017, Elsevier was publishing 416 fully open access journals. As of April 2018, this number had decreased to 328 journals, a decrease of 88 journals or 20% of the total. Data is from the Elsevier APC price list (conversion necessary for data manipulation).E2018nonchargingjpg

Most fully OA journals published by Elsevier do not charge publication fees (61% of the total) due to sponsorship by societies or universities. This percentage is about the same as the previous year (57% non-charging). A survey conducted in 2017 found that almost all non-charging journals were published by Elsevier on behalf of a society or university, with copyright ownership retained by the society or university.

A survey of the Elsevier website for OA journals identified as non-charging in 2017 was conducted over the summer. These journals are still listed on the Elsevier website if not the APC price list and information is provided about the current status of the journals. This is a good practice. A total of 88 journals were found to have been transferred back to the society in 2017 or 2018, or scheduled to be returned to the society or university publisher.

For example, a notes about the The Revista Mexicana de Bioversidad indicated that the journal:

Transferred back to the society as of 2018
Copyright © 2018 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

 

The average APC for Elsevier’s charging, fully OA journals in 2018 was $1,470 USD, up from $1,384 USD in 2017, an increase of 6%.

Thanks to René Duplain for data gathering.

 

 

 

 

Dropped from DOAJ – don’t rush to judge quality

A few years ago the Directory of Open Access Journals underwent a major weeding process. Many journals and entire publishers were removed from the directory. Does this mean that they are low quality? Based on this year’s collection of data from the Asian Network for Scientific Information (ANSInet), my advice is not to be too quick to judge. According to the ANSI website, this publisher is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics and the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers. Both organizations list ANSInet as a member. Looking at the list of ANSInet journals, I noticed that at least one is not that active; DOAJ will de-list journals that are not active regardless of the quality of publishing. As an aside, I wish DOAJ would stop doing this; there are good journals that publish less frequently and deserve to be listed. For example, there is a tradition of journal publishing associated with conferences, and some conferences are held every other year.