SpringerOpen, Egypt, and academic freedom

SpringerOpen 2019 and the Government of Egypt

by Dr. Heather Morrison

SpringerOpen is currently publishing 13 journals sponsored by the Government of Egypt. This is an opportunity to discuss some issues of relevance to the goals and sustainability of open access, starting with academic freedom. As described by Holmes and Aziz (2019) there are very serious problems with academic freedom in Egypt, ranging from tight government control over what is studied and published to extrajudicial killings of 21 students in the last few years. The University of Liverpool considered, then rejected, a lucrative offer to set up a campus in Egypt due to concerns about reputational damage. This raises some interesting questions. Academic freedom is critical to any kind of meaningful open access. Nothing could possibly be more in opposition to open access than a dead student whose research was destroyed because of what was studied. Why is SpringerOpen partnering with the Government of Egypt? Should academics boycott SpringerOpen because of this partnership? What, if anything, can academics do to support academic freedom in a country like Egypt? Some believe that the Creative Commons license CC-BY (attribution only) is the best for open access (I don’t agree, but this is a separate topic). If your research could get you killed, attribution might not be a good idea. Today, some of us might assume that these kinds of problems would never happen in our own countries; but times change, and it has happened that places that enjoyed freedom at one point in time came under the control of a dictator.

Following is the list of titles which state on the SpringerOpen site that they are supported by the “Specialized Presidential Council for Education and Scientific Research (Government of Egypt), so author-payable article-processing charges do not apply”.

Journals supported by the Government of Egypt published by SpringerOpen as of July 2019
Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology
Bulletin of the National Research Centre
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Middle East Current Psychiatry
The Cardiothoracic Surgeon
The Egyptian Heart Journal
The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery

Holmes, A. & Aziz, A. (2019). Egypt’s lost academic freedom. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved August 9, 2019 from https://carnegieendowment.org/sada/78210

 

 

SpringerNature and Macmillan: one company, two directions: open access and IP maximization

Second update July 30 (thanks to Springer’s Katie Baker): this Holtzbrinck.com site helps with how it all sits. SpringerNature is first on the page of companies owned, Macmillan Publishing is second.

Update July 30:

To help readers “see” the overall SpringerNature business, I’ve included the following screen shots which lists of Springer Nature brands captured from the SpringerNature group website on July 30, 2019 and the Macmillan.com site which that states that “Macmillan Publishers is a division of the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, a large family-owned media company headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany”. According to the SpringerNature group history, “Springer Nature was formed through the merger of Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, Macmillan Education and Springer Science+Business Media. The main shareholders of Springer Nature are Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. Holtzbrinck, a family-owned company based in Stuttgart, holds a majority share of 53 per cent” (from https://group.springernature.com/gp/group/aboutus/our-history). According to Springer representative Katie Baker (see comment), Macmillan Publishing is not associated with SpringerNature group. This is no doubt correct, however both report to the same owners, unless the Macmillan.com website is out of date, in which case an update on the business’ current ownership would be helpful.

SNG_trusted_brands_20190730

macmillan.com_20190730

When we interact with a large global business, whether as staff, customers, partners, or others, it is quite common that we only interact with a small portion of the company and have little or no knowledge of the company as a whole. Why does this matter?  Two examples:

  • When a country is having consultations on topics such as open access and copyright, a complex company like SpringerNature may be lobbying for opposing positions. SpringerOpen staff may only be aware of the open access position.
  • The nature of the mix of sub-companies owned by SpringerNature is such that SpringerOpen open access policies such as open licensing might be feeding commercial profit interests at another sub-company such as macmillan education without the knowledge of SpringerOpen staff, authors, and their acquaintances. For example, I would be surprised if SpringerNature sent staff from macmillan education to talk about downstream benefits of commercial re-use in textbook sales and rentals at OASPA or other open access / open education conferences. If open access advocates refer exclusively to downstream open educational uses of openly licensed material, it is not in the best financial interests of the parent company to discuss the potential for downstream toll access re-use.

Original post:

SpringerNature, owner of Springer Open, Nature, and BioMedCentral, positions itself as a leader in the open access movement. However, Springer, Nature, and BMC are only 3 of the brands of the parent company, SpringerNature Group. The purpose of this post is to raise awareness about the dual approach of the parent company with respect to copyright and intellectual property – positioning itself as both a leader in open access and a leader in IP maximization, and to encourage those with a sincere interest in the goal of open access to learn about, and question, organizations with an interest in serving this area.

While the SpringerNature site today states that it is:

“A new force in research publishing
Springer Nature is the world’s largest academic book publisher, publisher of the world’s most influential journals, and a pioneer in the field of open research” (from: https://group.springernature.com/gp/group

…another of the company’s brands, Macmillan, is sending letters to creators complaining that library lending is cannibalizing sales, and is further restricting paid library use of works. See the Canadian Urban Libraries’ Council on this matter here:
http://www.culc.ca/cms_lib/CULC%20Statement%20on%20Macmillan%20US%20Lending.pdf

Following are the brands listed on the SpringerNature group site as of today:

Our brand sites
Springer
Nature Research
BiomedCentral
Palgrave Macmillan
Macmillan Education
Springer Healthcare
Scientific American

In addition to open access, this company is involved in toll access textbook publishing and rentals and educational services that appear to compete with public education services. Even among the 3 brands involved in open access, 2 (Springer and Nature Research) have a long history of making money through subscriptions and sales. Even today, this is probably a much larger source of income than open access, and one of these brands’ main assets is copyright ownership of a large corpus of works.

To understand the potential futures of open access, it is important to understand the nature of the players involved. The friendly staff of Springer Open are no doubt a pleasure to work with for people in the OA movement, and sincere in their embrace of OA. However, when they tell you that true open access requires open licensing granting blanket downstream permission for commercial uses, they might not be aware that some of these commercial uses could involve for-profit textbook sales and rentals.

Unlike Elsevier, SpringerNatureGroup does not post financial information on its website. As a publicly traded corporation, Elsevier is obliged to provide this kind of transparency, including profits and business strategy. The corporation as a form of business can be viewed as an early form of openness in business; anyone can buy shares and participate in profits and decision-making. Springer is privately owned, and has no such obligation. In this respect, Springer is far less open than Elsevier.

Originally posted on the Global Open Access List and the Radical Open Access List.

Springer Open: ceased, now hybrid, OA identification challenges

Abstract

SpringerNature, owner of Nature Publishing Group, Springer Open, and BioMedCentral, is the world’s largest fully open access journal publisher as measured by number of journals. The purpose of this post is to underscore what appears to be a significant open access attrition rate at SpringerOpen (16% OA attrition in the past few years) and raise questions about challenges to finding and identifying these journals as open access. Ceased journals that were always open access are listed on the SpringerLink (mostly subscriptions) site, not the SpringerOpen website. Subscriptions articles are clearly marked as such; the OA status of an article is not stated on the journal home page. Information provided by a library about License Terms may not mention or resemble a CC license.

Update July 23: the following analysis missed two ceased journals, Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering and China Journal of Economic Research. Unlike the other titles, China Journal of Economic Research is not listed on SpringerLink, although a journal home page can be found through a Google Search. No content is available online and the journal’s default license while publishing is not clear. Adding this title makes a small difference to the numbers and percentages. These titles are not included in the working dataset but will be included in the main file.

Details

We have been tracking 258 Springer Open titles up to 2018 (excluding journals new in 2019 and journals now listed under BioMedCentral). Of these, 33 (13%) have ceased publication and 7 (3%) are now hybrid journals, combining subscriptions and optional open access (Open Choice) articles. Together, these two categories add up to a combined OA attrition rate of 16%.

Finding the titles and/or identifying the open access status of journals and articles could be challenging. For example, 38 of the 40 journals are listed on the main SpringerLink site; none are listed on the Springer Open site. The SpringerLink site includes thousands of journals (a SpringerLink search for “journal” yields over 3,500 results), almost all of which are subscriptions based.

For example, if you click on the link to now ceased Earth Perspectives from the SpringerLink website, while as pictured on the bottom right hand side there is a link to the open access collection there is no prominent mention of the open access status of this journal. Earth_Perspectives_1

Clicking on the latest volume, as shown, brings up a list of articles in the volume, with no indication at this stage that the articles are open access. Earth_Perspectives_2.

Once you get to the actual article, the open access status is stated clearly at the top and the copyright link goes to the CC-BY license (all ceased titles were licensed CC-BY).

18 of the 32 ceased titles were listed in DOAJ in 2018; only 2 are listed in DOAJ as of Jan. 31, 2019.

Journals ceased by year
2015 1
2016 6
2017 10
2018 8
2019 1
not stated 7
Grand Total 33

As illustrated by the table above, most of these journals ceased quite recently. Authors who selected a journal for publication in 2017 or 2018 because it was on the Springer Open website and/or in DOAJ might be surprised to know that their journal has been de-listed by these sites, perhaps shortly after their article was published.

When I look up the titles through the University of Ottawa library’s A to Z journal list, the journals are identified as open or free access, however the link to the License Terms of Use, while they indicate broad use, are very different from CC-BY. For example, the answer to the question: “Can I post a copy in a course management system?” is: “The licensee and authorized users may incorporate parts of the licensed materials in Virtual Campus.” There is no indication of the CC license. As an aside, this is not meant as a critique; identifying an entire journal as under one CC license might solve some problems, but would likely create others.

Some examples of problems arising from identifying CC licensing at a journal level

  • third party content is generally under a different license than an article or journal
  • different articles and different types of content may have different licenses
  • the journal may have changed its default license over time; in the case of journals that began publishing before CC licenses became available, this is almost always the case

6 of the 7 journals that are now hybrid are clearly hybrid, mixing open access and subscriptions content. In the list of articles in a particular volume, subscription articles are clearly marked with a lock, and lead to information that an article can be purchased for $39.95, rented through DeepDyve, or subscribed to. There is no open access note or symbol for open access content, although on the bottom right hand of the screen there is a link to an open access collection search, and items are marked as open access once the reader gets to the article level.

Following are lists of the ceased and hybrid publications, remember if you would like to look them up, use SpringerLink site, not the Springer Open site:

Ceased

Applied Informatics
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology
China Journal of Economic Research
Computational Cognitive Science
Decision Analytics
Earth Perspectives — Transdisciplinarity Enabled
Earthquake Science
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems
Fields Mathematics Education Journal
In Silico Cell and Tissue Science
Infrastructure Complexity
International Journal of Dharma Studies
Journal of Chinese Management
Journal of Chinese Studies
Journal of Computational Surgery
Journal of Frugal Innovation
Journal of Solid State Lighting
Journal of Trust Management
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications
Lingua Sinica
Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies
Multilingual Education
mUX: The Journal of Mobile User Experience
Psychology of Well-Being
Robotics and Biomimetics
SpringerPlus
Sustainable Chemical Processes
Technology, Innovation and Education
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability
The Journal of Global Positioning Systems
Zoological Studies

Now hybrid

Fire Science Reviews (technically open access predecessor to hybrid Fire Technology)
In Silico Pharmacology
Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation
Maritime Studies
Research in the Mathematical Sciences
Science China Life Sciences
Journal of Remanufacturing

Full but messy, working, undocumented data is available for download here:

Springer_ceased_2019

Springer_now_hybrid_2019

This is only one aspect of the Springer Open 2019 analysis.

For earlier posts on Springer, see https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/?s=springer&submit=Search

SpringerOpen: about 40% of journals fully sponsored, good clear language examples

In April when we first gathered APC information for SpringerOpen we found many titles with links not working to uncover details. Over the past week I’ve noticed that details have been added and can now confirm that about 40% of the 235 SpringerOpen titles listed on the publisher’s website are fully sponsored with no article processing charges. In most cases, the language about journal sponsorship is very clear and this could be a model for other publishers. There are some minor variations in wording between journals and sponsors. Following are a few examples of different expressions, all copied from the website of the journal. A complete list of journals with clear language indicating no article processing fees due to full sponsorship, with the corresponding language, follows further on.

Another aspect of SpringerOpen which might be a model for other publishers is the feature of a special tab for the sponsoring institution or society. This appears to me to be a good practice both from the perspective of transparency and to add value back to the sponsor in the form of promotion.

From the chemistry journal 3biotech (see About the Journal / King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology tab)

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) is an independent scientific organization administratively reporting to the Prime Minister. KACST is both the Saudi Arabian national science agency and its national laboratories. The science agency function involves science and technology policy making, data collection, funding of external research, and services such as the patent office. KACST partnered with Springer to publish a suite of international journals to foster the development of key applied technologies, providing a forum for the dissemination of research advances and successes from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the world. KACST provide funds to cover all publication costs of these journals, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors.

From the City, Territory and Architecture home page:

The publication costs for articles in City, Territory and Architecture are covered by Università degli Studi Sassari, authors do not need to pay an article processing charge

From the International Journal of Implant Dentistry home page:

International Journal of Implant Dentistry is affiliated with German Society of Oral Implantology (DGI) and the Japanese Society of Oral Implantology (JSOI). Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in International Journal of Implant Dentistry.

A full list of the 85 journals listed on the SpringerOpen website with very clear language indicating that there are no article processing charges due to journal sponsorship, with the wording used by each journal, follows. For more details please see the SpringerOpen journal list. In addition to these 85 titles, there are 12 additional journals where I was not able to assess whether there is an APC or not (I classify these as “cost not found”), and 7 journals, of which 3 involve society or institutional sponsorship, that appear to be in the process of developing APCs with costs not specified (e.g. Fees and Funding page says “we are currently rebuilding this website), or in the case of Lingua Sinica, fees are waived for the inaugural year of 2015-2016. One sponsored journal, Zoological Studies, has transferred to a different publisher. It will be interesting to observe what happens with this model over the next few years. This strategy of partnering with sponsoring societies and institutions is similar to what we are seeing this year with De Gruyter Open as reported earlier in english and français

Journal Title Language indicating sponsorship / no publication fee
3 Biotech King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) is an independent scientific organization administratively reporting to the Prime Minister. KACST is both the Saudi Arabian national science agency and its national laboratories. The science agency function involves science and technology policy making, data collection, funding of external research, and services such as the patent office. KACST partnered with Springer to publish a suite of international journals to foster the development of key applied technologies, providing a forum for the dissemination of research advances and successes from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the world. KACST provide funds to cover all publication costs of these journals, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors.
Applied Nanoscience supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Applied Petrochemical Research supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Applied Water Science supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) free to submit and free to read for all
Asian Journal of German and European Studies DAAD from the Federal Foreign Office. All Responsibility for Publication is taken by The Centre for German and European Studies, Chung Ang University.
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility Fees and funding: The publication costs for Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility are covered by the Sustainability Management Research Institute (Inha University, Korea), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education Fees and funding:

The publication costs for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education are covered by the Research Center for Modern Linguistics and Foreign Language Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.

Brain Informatics The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges. No sponsor listed.
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences is a fully sponsored, peer-reviewed open access journal. The Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences was launched by King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Business Research publication costs for articles published in Business Research are covered by the German Academic Association of Business Research, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
China Finance and Economic Review The publication costs for China Finance and Economic Review are covered by the National Academy of Economic Strategy, CASS, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
China Journal of Economic Research The publication costs for articles in China Journal of Economic Research are covered by the Centre for Economic Research, Shandong University, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
City, Territory and Architecture The publication costs for articles in City, Territory and Architecture are covered by Università degli Studi Sassari, authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
Clinical Phytoscience The publication costs for the articles published in Clinical Phytoscience are sponsored by the Phytoneering Foundation, so authors do not need to pay the article processing charge
Comparative Migration Studies The publication costs for Comparative Migration Studies are covered by IMISCOE, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Complex & Intelligent Systems Complex & Intelligent Systems is an Open Access journal  supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by KACST. Authors can publish in the journal without any charges.
Computational Cognitive Science The publication costs for Computational Cognitive Science are covered by the Centre for Knowledge & Interaction Technology, Flinders University, Australia, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Computational Visual Media This is an open access journal, published quarterly by Tsinghua University Press and Springer. The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored by Tsinghua University, China. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Data Science and Engineering The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training The publication costs for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training are covered by Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation (SBFI), Bern, Switzerland, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
European Journal of Futures Research The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Institut Futur (Free University Berlin), the Center for Futures Studies (Salzburg University of Applied Sciences) and the Foundation for Future Studies – an initiative of British American Tobacco, Hamburg.Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Fashion and Textiles associated with the The Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles. The journal enjoys the full support of the KSCT, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Fields Mathematics Education Journal The publication costs for Fields Mathematics Education Journal are covered by The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Financial Innovation The publication costs for Financial Innovation are covered by Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Forest Ecosystems The publication costs for Forest Ecosystems are covered by Beijing Forestry University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Functional Linguistics The publication costs for Functional Linguistics are covered by M.A.K. Halliday Library, School of Foreign Languages, Sun Yat-sen University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Genus The publication costs for Genus: Journal of Population Sciences are covered by Sapienza University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Geothermal Energy The publication costs for Geothermal Energy are covered by Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ; Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences; and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences The publication costs for Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences are covered by Korea Information Processing Society – Computer Software Research Group, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Aquatic Research fully sponsored – Islamic Azad University
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering (IJASE) The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy The publication costs for International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy are covered by Korea Institute of Child Care and Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Journal of Dharma Studies The publication costs for International Journal of Dharma Studies are covered by the Center for Dharma Studies at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education The publication costs for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education are covered by the journal, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge..edited by the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya and the Universidad de los Andes (Colombia).
International Journal of Geo-Engineering The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Korean Geotechnical Society. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
International Journal of Implant Dentistry International Journal of Implant Dentistry is affiliated with German Society of Oral Implantology (DGI) and the Japanese Society of Oral Implantology (JSOI). Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in International Journal of Implant Dentistry.
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering The article-processing charges for this journal are kindly sponsored by the University of Malaya, Malaysia. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture The International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture is a peer-reviewed open access journal published under the brand SpringerOpen, covering all aspects of recycling of organic waste. It is fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in.
International Nano Letters fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore, it is both free to read and free to publish in International Nano Letters.
IZA Journal of European Labor Studies The publication costs for IZA Journal of European Labor Studies are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor & Development The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor & Development are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor Economics The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor Economics are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor Policy The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor Policy are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Migration The publication costs for IZA Journal of Migration are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing at Tsinghua University. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges
Journal of Analytical Science and Technology The publication costs for Journal of Analytical Science and Technology are covered by the journal, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics – the official journal of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS). The Article Processing Charges (APC) are fully sponsored by EPOS.
Journal of Chinese Management The publication costs for Journal of Chinese Management are covered by the China Association for Social & Economic System Analysis Research, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge
Journal of Economic Structures Message on journal home page: Due to a generous grant by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), we will waive article processing charges (APCs) for all accepted articles in the Journal of Economic Structures. The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS). Message under Fees and funding: The publication costs for Journal of Economic Structures are covered by Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research Society affiliation: Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research is affiliated with the Faculty of Entrepreneurship and the UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship at the University of Tehran. The publication costs for Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research are covered by the University of Tehran, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Industrial Engineering International The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Journal of International Humanitarian Action The publication costs for Journal of International Humanitarian Action are covered by the Network On Humanitarian Action, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy Open access sponsored by the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute
Journal of Modern Transportation fully sponsored: Southwest Jiaotong University
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Journal of Organization Design The publication costs for Journal of Organization Design are covered by the Organizational Design Community, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge. This has been made possible by a generous grant from the Department of Management, Aarhus University.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright.
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology The Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology is a quarterly Open Access journal (supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics It is fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in.
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications The publication costs for Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications are covered by the International Consortium for Uncertainty Theory (ICUT) and Hebei University of Engineering, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Large-scale Assessments in Education The publication costs for Large-scale Assessments in Education are covered by IEA-ETS Research Institute, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge
Latin American Economic Review The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by CIDE. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges. CIDE =(Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas)
Life Sciences, Society and Policy The publication costs for Life Sciences, Society and Policy are covered by Centre for Society and the Life Sciences, Radboud University, the Netherlands and Economic and Social Research Council, Genomics Network, UK, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Mathematical Sciences The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies The publication costs for Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies are covered by The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Micro and Nano Systems Letters The publication costs for Micro and Nano Systems Letters are covered by The Society of Micro and Nano Systems, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics. Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics is an official journal of the German society of child and adolescent medicine (DGKJ).
Nano Convergence The publication costs for Nano Convergence are covered by the Korea Nano Technology Research Society, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Nano-Micro Letters The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited (Scion). New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science is owned by Scion. The publication costs for articles in New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science are covered by Scion, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry The publication costs for the Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry are covered by the Institute of Mathematics for Industry, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Progress in Biomaterials The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Progress in Orthodontics All accepted articles are published free of charge. Progress in Orthodontics is associated with the Italian Society of Orthodontics (SIDO)
Protein & Cell The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by Higher Education Press, Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Biophysical Society of China. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning The publication costs for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning are covered by The Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Science China Life Sciences The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
SERIEs The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Spanish Economic Association. By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright and assign only the exclusive right to any commercial use of the article to Springer.
Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright. The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the British Limb reconstruction Society. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
The Journal of Chinese Sociology The publication costs for The Journal of Chinese Sociology are covered by Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
The Journal of Global Positioning Systems The publication costs for The Journal of Global Positioning Systems are covered by The International Association of Chinese Professionals in Global Positioning Systems, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Urban Rail Transit The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by Beijing Urban Rapid Rail Transit Press Co. Ltd., authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy The publication costs for Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy are covered by Wilf Malcolm Institute of Educational Research, University of Waikato (NZ); Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia; Institute of Education, Massey University (NZ); College of Educational Studies, Chapman University (USA); Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University (Denmark); Faculty of Education, University of Auckland (NZ); Department of Informatics and Computing, University of Applied Sciences (Croatia), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Vietnam Journal of Computer Science The Vietnam Journal of Computer Science is published in cooperation with the Nguyen Tat Thanh University, which provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.

 

SpringerOpen: 2015-2016 APCs Comparison

Update May 9: many of the journals with links to APC information not working in April are now working, so that we can confirm that about 40% of SpringerOpen journals are fully sponsored and do not charge article processing fees.

SpringerOpen is an Open Access (OA) publisher that requires Article Processing Charges (APCs) for most journals. This publisher displays APCs in three currencies: pound sterling (GBP), US dollar (USD) and Euro (EUR).
SpringerOpen is the fourth largest OA journal in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with 170 journals listed. As SpringerOpen is one of the largest OA publishers it must be examined in order to gain insight into future APC trends.

2015/2016

151 matching journals from 2015 and 2016 were compared in USD. When the journals not charging APCs were removed, the average APC for 2015 was $1,166 and is $1,239 in 2016.  The lowest APC for 2015 was $125 for Agricultural and Food Economics. In 2016, the lowest APC is $430 for two journals: Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences and Botanical Studies. The mode APC was $1,085 for both 2015 and 2016.  The highest APC in 2015 was $1,935 for AMB Express and in 2016 is $2,500 for AAPS Open.

Only one journal’s APC decreased from 2015: Fire Science Reviews was charging $1,420 in 2015 and is now charging $1,155 (-19%) in 2016. 38 journals did not charge APCs in 2015, and still do not charge them in 2016. 32 journals are charging the same amount as they were in 2015. A little more than half of the journals (77/151) have increased their APCs. Most of those charging more (54/77), increased by 10% or less.

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