DOAJ: handmaiden to despots? or, OA, we need to talk

As any movement grows and flourishes, decisions made will turn out to have unforeseen consequences. Achieving the goals of the movement requires critical reflection and occasional changes in policy and procedure.The purpose of this post is to point out that the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) appears to be inadvertently acting as a handmaiden to at least one despotic government, facilitating dissemination of works subject to censorship and rejecting open access journals that would be suitable venues for critics of the despotic government. There is no blame and no immediately obvious remedy, but solving a problem begins with acknowledging that a problem exists and inviting discussion of how to avoid and solve the problem. OA friends, please consider this such an invitation.

As I posted recently, SpringerOpen is currently publishing 13 journals that are sponsored by the Government of Egypt, a government that has been criticized for numerous major violations of the human rights and academic freedoms of scholars (by “major” I mean consequences up to and including murder). These journals are listed in DOAJ.

In contrast, a number of journals that welcome global authors that would be suitable venues for critics of the Egyptian government (a number of the Global Communication Journals network journals and the International Journal of Communication) are no longer listed in DOAJ, in spite of the facts that these journals are fully open access and meet the quality criteria for DOAJ, as discussed here.

It seems very unlikely that anyone in the OA movement deliberately decided on a strategy of facilitating the inclusion of works sponsored by a despotic government and suppressing venues suitable for critique of despotic governments. But in effect this is what is happening. I do not know if this scenario is unique. There are reasons to think that it is not. As reported in previous posts on this blog, large commercial companies partnering with various sponsors is not unusual. A large company with dedicated staff and a number of open access journals is in a better position to ensure that their journals are included in DOAJ than a small one-off not-for-profit journal.

There is no blame and no instant remedy, but to achieve the vision of the global sharing of the knowledge of humankind, solutions must be found. The first steps in solving a problem are acknowledging that a problem exists and inviting discussion and brainstorm on potential solutions. OA friends, please consider this an invitation.

Links to posts referred to:

https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/08/07/springeropen-egypt-and-academic-freedom/

https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/08/13/no-fee-inclusive-journals-and-disappointment-with-doaj/

Cite as:

Morrison, H. (2019). DOAJ: Handmaiden to despots? or, OA, we need to talk. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons / Soutenir Les Savoirs Communs. Retrieved from https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/08/14/doaj-handmaiden-to-despots-or-oa-we-need-to-talk/

SpringerOpen pricing trends 2018 – 2019

by Heather Morrison

Abstract

270 SpringerOpen journals were studied. 33 (12%) have ceased publication, 15 have been transferred to another publisher, and 7 are now hybrid. Of the 215 active journals published by SpringerOpen, 54% charge APCs. The average APC was 1,212 EUR, an increase of 8% over the 2018 average, 6 times the EU inflation rate for June 2019 of 1.3%. 58% of the 96 journals for which we have 2018 and 2018 data did not change in price; 5% decreased in price; and 36% increased in price. Price increases for journals that increased in price ranged from 3% to 109% (double the inflation rate to double in price). Journals with the highest volume of publishing were the most likely to have increased in price. This will amplify the effective percentage of articles with price increases for APC payers. 40% of the journals are sponsored by a university, society, government, or other not-for-profit partner, and have no publication fee. The sustainability of these sponsorships is not clear. 12 journals appear to have recently switched from “no APC” to “now APC”, with APCs only slightly below the SpringerOpen average. The affordability of the SpringerOpen partnership approach is called into question. SpringerOpen’s average APC does not compare favorably either to average academic salaries in a low to middle income country (with Egypt as an example) or to OJS Premium journal hosting services (the break-even point is 2 articles per year, i.e. a journal that publishes 3 articles per year saves money with OJS Premium as compared to SpringerOpen). Even a sponsor based in Germany only pays half the APC, raising a question about whether SpringerOpen sponsorships are sustainable anywhere.

Details

PDF Springer Open Pricing Trends 2018_2019

Table 1: 2019 SpringerOpen Journal Publication and APC status summary

2019 SpringerOpen Journal Publication and APC status summary
Status * # Journals Percent
APC 117 43%
No publication fee 85 31%
Ceased publication 33 12%
Transferred to another publisher 15 6%
No cost found 13 5%
Now hybrid 7 3%
Total ** 270 100%

* status data is found in “2019 APC publisher website original currency” column

** total excludes 1 predecessor title and 12 journals previously listed under Springer now listed under BMC

Pricing trends 2018 – 2019

Of the 270 journals total:

  • 13 titles are new in 2019 (included in 2019 overall analysis but not 2018 – 2019 trend analysis)
  • 33 are ceased, 7 now hybrid, 15 transferred to another publisher: these titles are not included in the price trends analysis

Total journals included in price trend analysis:

  • 2019 overall: 215
  • 2018 – 2019 comparison: 202

Of the 215 titles, as illustrated in the chart and table below, an APC amount is confirmed for just over half the journals (54%). 40% are confirmed as having no publication fee, while for 6% of the journals it was not possible to confirm whether or not a publication fee is charged.

Chart 1: % of SpringerOpen active times by APC status (has APC, no publication fee, no cost found)

chart1

Table 2: SpringerOpen active titles 2019 by APC status

Springer Open active titles 2019 by APC status
Status Number Percentage
APC 117 54%
No publication fee 85 40%
No cost found * 13 6%
Grand Total 215

* No cost found = we could not identify whether or not there is a publication charge.

Of the 85 titles with no publication fee in 2019, 73 were published in partnership with a university (31), society (17), government (17), or not-for-profit organization (8).  Many of these journals’ websites indicate that there is no publication fee due to sponsorship, for example “…agreement between Springer Nature and the Specialized Presidential Council for Education and Scientific Research (Government of Egypt), therefore author-payable article-processing charges do not apply”. 7 of these titles are new to the Springer Open website in 2019. This suggests that either Springer Nature is actively soliciting sponsoring partners, or that not-for-profit publishers are actively seeking commercial partnerships.

APC Model, currency and some notes re data collection

SpringerOpen uses a straightforward per-article article processing charge. A SpringerOpen APC list that includes pricing for Springer, BioMedCentral, and Nature journals was downloaded from the Springer website on July 16, 2019. Pricing is listed in 3 currencies for each journal: EUR, GBP, and USD. EUR was selected for analysis as this was the currency included in the 2018 OA Main spreadsheet, hence the best for comparison (because Springer is based in Germany, it was assumed that this was the “primary” currency).

For some journals the SpringerOpen APC list states “see website” for pricing. Pricing information for these journals was taken from the SpringerOpen website.

Information about waivers etc., and pricing information for hybrid journals, was not gathered as outside the scope for this project.

APC information from the Jan. 31, 2019 DOAJ metadata forms part of the main spreadsheet. Originally, I had hoped to be able to rely on this data, at least for journals added to DOAJ in 2018 and 2019, at least for journals that do not charge APCs. However, after a quick check I realized that there are a number of journals that indicated no publication charge in DOAJ that currently have a publication charge in the SpringerOpen APC list or website. For this reason, DOAJ data is not used as a basis for 2019 information.

Table 3: 2019 and 2018 SpringerOpen APC central tendency in EUR

2019 and 2018 APC central tendency in EUR
2019 2018 % increase
Average 1,212 1,128 8
Median 1,155 1,035 12

The table above provides the central tendencies for all SpringerOpen titles with an APC for either 2019 (117 journals) or 2018 (104 journals) in EUR. There has been an 8% increase in the average APC and a 12% increase in the median APC.

Price changes 2018 – 2019

There are 96 journals for which we have an APC amount in both 2018 and 2019.

Table 4: SpringerOpen price changes 2018 – 2019 (96 journals)

Direction of change *
Price decrease 5%
No change 58%
Price increase 36%
* Note: does not include change to / from no publication fee

As illustrated in the Table 4 above, a majority of these journals (58%) did not change prices in EUR from 2018 to 2019, while more than a third (36%) increased in price and a few (5%) decreased in price.

The 2018 prices of journals with price increases ranged from 630 EUR (well below average) to 1,750 EUR (well above average). The 2018 average price of these journals was 1,160 EUR, above the 2018 average of 1,128 EUR. The median was 1,100 EUR, above the 2018 median of 1,035 EUR. In other words, while some journals with below-average APCs increased in price, a majority of journals with price increases had above-average APCs in 2018.

For the 35 journals that increased in price, the increases in percentages ranged from 3% to 109% (slightly more than double in price).  According to the European Commission (2019), “Euro area annual inflation was 1.3 % in June 2019, up from 1.2 % in May 2019.” All prices increased were more than double the inflation rate. 23 journals had price increases of 14% or more, more than 10 times the current inflation rate.

All of the 5 journals with APC price decreases had above-average APCs in 2018 (from 1,050 to 2,035 EUR).

Volume of publishing and direction of APC price change

Volume of publishing per journal was calculated using Walt Crawford’s (2018) Global Open Access Journals. The number of articles published per year was summed to get a total # of articles published per journal from 2011 – 2018. A few journals for which no such data was available were excluded. Not surprisingly, volume of publication appears to correlate with APC pricing trend. As illustrated in the table below, journals that decreased in price had on average fewer articles than journals that did change in price, with the highest volume of publication noted for journals with price increases.

Table 5: average SpringerOpen articles published 2011 – 2018 by APC trend

Average # articles published* 2011 – 2018 by APC trend
Price decrease No change Price increase
Average # articles 118 162 674
Median # articles 41 115 243
* from Walt Crawford’s Gold Open Access Journals (2018)

Table 6: 2018 -2019 price changes and # of articles by journal title

Journal title 2019 APC (EUR) 2018 APC (EUR) 2019 – 2018 # 2019 – 2018 % WC # articles total 2011 – 2018
Environmental Sciences Europe 2,040 975 1,065 109% 216
Environmental Systems Research 1,690 885 805 91% 150
Injury Epidemiology 1,465 930 535 58% 176
Agricultural and Food Economics 1,000 650 350 54% 136
Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 1,570 1,085 485 45% 135
EJNMMI Research 2,170 1,600 570 36% 609
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 1,870 1,425 445 31% 1,351
Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 1,300 1,000 300 30% 244
Heritage Science 1,180 930 250 27% 276
Boundary Value Problems 1,180 930 250 27% 1,532
Advances in Difference Equations 1,180 930 250 27% 2,523
Journal of Inequalities and Applications 1,180 930 250 27% 2,786
International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility 1,000 800 200 25% 37
Annals of Intensive Care 2,170 1,750 420 24% 581
Nanoscale Research Letters 1,570 1,300 270 21% 4,038
EURASIP Journal on Information Security 760 630 130 21% 91
Applied Adhesion Science 1,180 1,000 180 18% 119
Journal of Big Data 1,180 1,000 180 18% 161
EPJ Quantum Technology 1,290 1,100 190 17% 54
EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing 1,290 1,100 190 17% 200
The Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience 1,290 1,105 185 17% 104
Pastoralism 1,290 1,105 185 17% 190
Rice 1,990 1,745 245 14% 335
Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications 860 800 60 8% 419
EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing 1,290 1,200 90 8% 475
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 1,290 1,200 90 8% 1,035
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 1,290 1,200 90 8% 1,962
Critical Ultrasound Journal 1,870 1,745 125 7% 241
Crime Science 990 930 60 6% 107
Fixed Point Theory and Applications 990 930 60 6% 1,181
European Transport Research Review 1,200 1,150 50 4% 270
International Journal of Bipolar Disorders 1,790 1,745 45 3% 162
Sports Medicine – Open 1,790 1,745 45 3% 171
AMB Express 1,790 1,745 45 3% 851
Botanical Studies 1,690 1,745 -55 -3% 355
European Journal of Hybrid Imaging 1,570 1,745 -175 -10% 42
Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Modern Processes 690 1,050 -360 -34% 40
CVIR Endovascular 1,060 1,745 -685 -39% 35

Table 6 above lists all Springer journals with APC changes from 2018 – 2019 in descending order by % change, with the total number of articles published from 2011 – 2018 from Crawford (2018)

“No APC” to “Now APC” journals (12 journals

As of July 26, 2019, there are 12 journals listed in DOAJ where DOAJ indicates “No” Article Processing Charges (APCs) that have APCs according to the Springer Open website. For example, DOAJ information on Brain Informatics is as follows

“PUBLICATION CHARGES

Article Processing Charges (APCs): No.

Submission Charges: No.

Waiver policy for charges? No.”

(Screen scrape from DOAJ website July 26, 2019)

An investigation was conducted to answer the following questions:

  • Are these errors in DOAJ or an actual change from non-charging to charging?
  • What are the characteristics of these journals (age, country of publication, journal license, current APC, society / institution partnerships, timing of switch from non-charging to charging)

Information to answer these questions was drawn from DOAJ and the APC project (data gathered from the publishers’s website) for 2014 – 2019.

Of the 12 journals, 9 are confirmed as having had no publication fee as of 2016, the first year we began systematic gathering of data from the SpringerOpen website. 1 journal listed as “no cost found” in 2016 is listed as “no publication fee” in 2015 and “0” in 2014 (reflecting a change in data collection practices). The remaining 2 journals were identified as “no publication fee” in 2018. Therefore, it was confirmed that all 12 journals were at some point between 2015 and today “No publication fee” journals, that is, journals that had wording on the website clearly indicating that there is no publication charge.

10 of the 12 journals (83%) have a society or institution listed in DOAJ as of Jan. 31, 2019. This suggests two possible reasons for the change from non-charging to charging: 1) the society or institution may have provided interim sponsorship to cover Springer APCs but did not obtain ongoing funding or 2) Springer may have offered an initial low or no-cost deal then raised prices (a common business strategy). The two reasons are not mutually exclusive, and it is possible that other factors are involved that I am not aware of.

Country of publication of no to now APC journals

As illustrated in the table below, 11/12 (92%) of the journals are published in the EU/UK, suggesting a regional trend. 8/12 (two thirds) of the journals are published in Germany, the home country of the ownership and management of parent company SpringerNature (see Who owns SpringerNature? Section below). Does this hint at a direction the company expects to take with all sponsored journals in future?

Table 7: Country of Publication of SpringerOpen “no” to “now” APC journals

Country Journals
Germany 8
Netherlands 1
Singapore 1
United Kingdom 2
Grand Total 12

First calendar year journal provided online Open Access content (no to now journals)

The DOAJ metadata element “First calendar year journal provided online Open Access content” for Jan. 31, 2019 was used a surrogate for age of the journals, with the following results.

Table 8: First calendar year of open access (from DOAJ)

Year Journals
2008 1
2012 1
2013 2
2014 4
2015 1
2016 1
2018 2

The table above indicates a fairly wide range of dates of first online content, with some clustering in 2014. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences about age of journal and tendency to shift from charging to non-charging.

Timing of switch from non-charging to charging

APCs were first found on the SpringerOpen website for these journals as follows:

2017:   1

2018:   3

2019:   8

This data suggests a recent increase in tendency to switch from non-charging to charging. This makes sense in the context of funder push for transition to OA via APCs (OA2020, PlanS).

The APC amounts for these journals are very similar to the overall pattern for SpringerOpen journals, as is illustrated in the following table:

Table 9: SpringerOpen APC no to yes APC v. all

SpringerOpen APC 2019 (EUR)
No to Yes APC only All
Average 1,089 1,212
Median 1,000 1,155
Mode 1,155 885
Range 800 – 1,745 510 – 2,480

Table 10: SpringerOpen Transferred publications

Journal title Transferred to
Bandung: Journal of the Global South Brill
China Finance and Economic Review A new publisher
IZA Journal of Development and Migration Sciendo (de Gruyter imprint)
IZA Journal of Labor Economics Sciendo (de Gruyter imprint)
IZA Journal of Labor Policy Sciendo (de Gruyter imprint)
Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity MDPI
Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry World Scientific Publishing
Scientific Phone Apps and Mobile Devices APD SKEG Pte Ltd
Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction Jaypee
Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy The Association of Visual Pedagogies

Of the 10 journals that were transferred to other publishers, 8 were transferred to other commercial publishers, 1 was transferred to the association partner, and 1 simply indicated “new publisher”. 3 of these journals were picked up by deGruyter imprint Sciendo.

Discussion

One of the goals of the Sustaining the Knowledge Commons project is to assess the sustainability of approaches to open access. This analysis of Springer Open as of summer 2019 raises some concerns. APC price increases far beyond inflationary rates, particularly when correlated with journals with higher volume, raises questions about the sustainability of the APC approach. The following section focuses on questions about the sustainability of the SpringerOpen partner-sponsor approach that currently accounts for 40% of SpringerOpen journals.

Journal and partnership sustainability

SpringerOpen is a relatively new entrant into open access journal publishing. SpringerOpen appears to be growing through a combination of starting new commercial journals and partnerships with societies, universities, and other not-for-profits that appear to start out with sponsorship approach. In this context, a 12% attrition (“ceased publication”) rate is a concern, particularly when ceased journal titles are no longer listed on the SpringerOpen website or DOAJ, as explained in detail in Morrison (July 22, 2019).

The sustainability of sponsoring partnerships needs further examination. 12 journals that formerly had no publication fees, now have fees. A glance at the list of new sponsoring journals raises questions about sustainability. One of the sponsoring agents is the Government of Egypt. This raises concerns about academic freedom as the Government of Egypt has been described as actively directing academic research and major abuses of the human rights of students and faculty, as discussed in detail elsewhere (Morrison, Aug. 7, 2019). This section will focus on the question of the economic sustainability of this approach.

As we noted a few years ago (Salhab and Morrison, 2015), as of 2015 it would have taken 3 months’ salary for a full professor in Egypt’s public university system to pay an APC of $1,500 USD. The current average APC rate is 1,212 EUR for Springer, equivalent to 1,357 USD (as of August 8, 2019 according to XE currency converter).

As of July 2019, SpringerOpen publishes 13 journals supported by “Specialized Presidential Council for Education and Scientific Research (Government of Egypt), so author-payable article-processing charges do not apply.” The titles are listed below. This arrangement appears to be in growth mode as 5 of these titles are new to the SpringerOpen list in 2019. In addition, The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, is published by an Egyptian society.

Table 11: Egypt sponsored SpringerOpen journals, July 2019

Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology
Bulletin of the National Research Centre
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Middle East Current Psychiatry
The Cardiothoracic Surgeon
The Egyptian Heart Journal
The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery

I hope that the salaries of professors in Egypt’s public university system have improved substantially since 2015. However, if this is not the case, this raises questions about the sustainability of this kind of sponsorship. If the Government of Egypt were to pay SpringerOpen average APCs (1,212 EUR or 1,357 USD) for a small journal publishing 40 articles per year, this sponsorship would cost 54,280 USD per year. If the salary rate for a full professor is still about 6,000 USD per year (1,500 for 3 months x 4), then the cost for sponsoring just one journal with SpringerOpen would be equivalent to the salaries of 9 full professors.

Optimistically guessing that the salaries of professors have doubled in the last few years, sponsoring just one small journal of 40 articles per year would cost the equivalent of the salaries of 4.5 full professors. Egyptian authors would be eligible for a 50% SpringerOpen discount because Egypt is listed as a lower-middle income economy by the World Bank (2019) (SpringerOpen, 2019). Assuming that the discount is applied to the sponsoring partner (the Government of Egypt), this still leaves the situation where a 40-article-per-year journal costs the equivalent of 4.5 full professors’ salaries. Assuming these waivers are applied and are not simply absorbed by a SpringerOpen profit rate of 50%, if the sponsor did not pay the full cost, who does?

Are these sponsorships affordable in the long run even for wealthy countries? The following statement of partial coverage of the 1,155 EUR APC of one of SpringerOpen’s journals may be relevant here as it suggests that SpringerOpen’s business plan involves charging sponsors similar amounts to their average APCs, and raises a question about whether a relatively well-funded research organization based in the same country as SpringerNature can afford to maintain this sponsorship model on an ongoing basis: “50% of the Article Processing Charge for Geothermal Energy is covered by Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology” (from SpringerOpen website, July 2019).

There are other options for a country like Egypt that are more sustainable and a better fit with the original goal of the Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) to “lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge”. As an initial step, I recommend developing a national open access repository or a system of institutional repositories, including an approach such as LOCKSS for preservation purposes, and developing a policy requiring Egyptian researchers to deposit their work for open access in these repositories. This is important to ensure that Egypt (and any other country) does not risk losing access to its own funded research. Relying for access on servers and suppliers in other countries is not wise in the long run because wars (military and trade) and natural disasters could result in temporary or permanent loss of access.

For publishing, there are significant advantages to a local approach, such as hosting local journals using the open source Open Journal Systems (OJS) and hiring local academics, technicians, and administrative assistants to do the work of publishing. OJS is just one example that I use, partly due to familiarity and partly due to open posting of their pricing. In the short term, this provides the immediate benefit of the lower and more predictable costs of local wages. In the long term, this approach cultivates the development of local expertise (technical and academic) and prepares Egyptian researchers for a larger role in international research. As an interim step, the Government of Egypt could contract with OJS for hosted systems at a cost of 850 USD – 2,700 USD per journal, depending on the level of service preferred. Assuming a 40-article per year journal and premium OJS service at 2,700 USD, this would save 51,580 USD per year as compared to publishing with SpringerOpen. Assuming SpringerOpen only expects half due to Egypt’s income status (27,140 USD), this still saves 24,440 USD per year.

Multiplying by 13 journals would result in an estimated cost savings of 317,720 USD – 670,540 USD per year. Assuming 2015 salary figures are still fairly accurate, this sum would be enough to pay the salaries of 55 – 110 full professors.

If half of this amount is redirected to hiring local staff (e.g., pay part of the time of a full-time professor to oversee academic quality, a librarian shared among several journals to look after journal hosting, a part-time administrative assistant), the Government of Egypt benefits from both cost savings and building of local expertise and leadership, and is developing the expertise to benefit even further down the road as this approach is good preparation for eventual further savings from downloading and hosting the software, eliminating the hosting fees. Aside from cost savings, this approach helps us to move towards equity – equal participation – and away from the charity model of APCs with waivers.

A simpler way to express the difference in affordability of the 2 approaches: 2 APCs at 1,357 USD (SpringerOpen average) = 2,714 USD. OJS premium journal hosting is 2,700 USD. The break-even point for a journal using OJS hosting as compared to partnering with SpringerOpen is 2 articles / year. Any journal that publishes 3 or more articles per year saves money with OJS’ premium service.

Perhaps this model would be helpful to institutions like Helmholtz in Germany, too? This basic approach (support local publishing) is a popular model in North and Latin America.

Who owns SpringerNature? According to the SpringerNature website:

“Springer Nature is organised as a German partnership limited by shares…which combines elements of a German stock corporation…and elements of a German limited partnership…  Shares in Springer Nature are held by entities controlled by the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and funds advised by BC Partners.

The management …is undertaken by a “general partner” (or “GP”)… For Springer Nature the GP is a German stock corporation held by entities controlled by the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and funds advised by BC Partners….” Screen scraped from July 26, 2019 (German omitted).

Raw data  in excel: (Springer portion of main spreadsheet). Caution: this is a working document without documentation and does not include analysis.

Springer_OA_main_2019

References

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002). Read the initiative. Retrieved August 8, 2019 from https://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read

Crawford, W. (2018). Gold Open Access Journals 2013 – 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2019 from https://waltcrawford.name/goa4.pdf

European Commission (2019). Eurostat statistics explained. Retrieved July 29, 2019 from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Inflation_in_the_euro_area#Euro_area_annual_inflation_rate_and_its_main_components

Morrison, H. July 22, 2019. SpringerOpen ceased, now hybrid, and OA identification challenges. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/07/22/springer-open-ceased-now-hybrid-oa-identification-challenges/

Morrison, H. August 7, 2019. SpringerOpen, Egypt, and academic freedom. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons. https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/08/07/springeropen-egypt-and-academic-freedom/

Salhab, J. & Morrison, H. (2015). Who is served by for-profit gold open access publishing? A case study of Hindawi and Egypt. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2015/04/10/who-is-served-by-for-profit-gold-open-access-publishing-a-case-study-of-hindawi-and-egypt/

SpringerOpen (2019). APC waivers and discounts. Retrieved August 8, 2019 from https://www.springeropen.com/get-published/article-processing-charges/open-access-waiver-fund

World Bank (2019). World Bank country and lending groups. Retrieved August 8, 2019 from https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519

Cite as: Morrison, H. (2019). SpringerOpen pricing trends 2019. Sustaining the Knowledge Commons August 13, 2019 https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2019/08/13/springeropen-pricing-trends-2018-2019/

SpringerOpen, Egypt, and academic freedom

SpringerOpen 2019 and the Government of Egypt

by Dr. Heather Morrison

SpringerOpen is currently publishing 13 journals sponsored by the Government of Egypt. This is an opportunity to discuss some issues of relevance to the goals and sustainability of open access, starting with academic freedom. As described by Holmes and Aziz (2019) there are very serious problems with academic freedom in Egypt, ranging from tight government control over what is studied and published to extrajudicial killings of 21 students in the last few years. The University of Liverpool considered, then rejected, a lucrative offer to set up a campus in Egypt due to concerns about reputational damage. This raises some interesting questions. Academic freedom is critical to any kind of meaningful open access. Nothing could possibly be more in opposition to open access than a dead student whose research was destroyed because of what was studied. Why is SpringerOpen partnering with the Government of Egypt? Should academics boycott SpringerOpen because of this partnership? What, if anything, can academics do to support academic freedom in a country like Egypt? Some believe that the Creative Commons license CC-BY (attribution only) is the best for open access (I don’t agree, but this is a separate topic). If your research could get you killed, attribution might not be a good idea. Today, some of us might assume that these kinds of problems would never happen in our own countries; but times change, and it has happened that places that enjoyed freedom at one point in time came under the control of a dictator.

Following is the list of titles which state on the SpringerOpen site that they are supported by the “Specialized Presidential Council for Education and Scientific Research (Government of Egypt), so author-payable article-processing charges do not apply”.

Journals supported by the Government of Egypt published by SpringerOpen as of July 2019
Ain Shams Journal of Anesthesiology
Bulletin of the National Research Centre
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
Egyptian Journal of Neurosurgery
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Middle East Current Psychiatry
The Cardiothoracic Surgeon
The Egyptian Heart Journal
The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery

Holmes, A. & Aziz, A. (2019). Egypt’s lost academic freedom. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved August 9, 2019 from https://carnegieendowment.org/sada/78210

 

 

SpringerNature and Macmillan: one company, two directions: open access and IP maximization

Second update July 30 (thanks to Springer’s Katie Baker): this Holtzbrinck.com site helps with how it all sits. SpringerNature is first on the page of companies owned, Macmillan Publishing is second.

Update July 30:

To help readers “see” the overall SpringerNature business, I’ve included the following screen shots which lists of Springer Nature brands captured from the SpringerNature group website on July 30, 2019 and the Macmillan.com site which that states that “Macmillan Publishers is a division of the Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, a large family-owned media company headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany”. According to the SpringerNature group history, “Springer Nature was formed through the merger of Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, Macmillan Education and Springer Science+Business Media. The main shareholders of Springer Nature are Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. Holtzbrinck, a family-owned company based in Stuttgart, holds a majority share of 53 per cent” (from https://group.springernature.com/gp/group/aboutus/our-history). According to Springer representative Katie Baker (see comment), Macmillan Publishing is not associated with SpringerNature group. This is no doubt correct, however both report to the same owners, unless the Macmillan.com website is out of date, in which case an update on the business’ current ownership would be helpful.

SNG_trusted_brands_20190730

macmillan.com_20190730

When we interact with a large global business, whether as staff, customers, partners, or others, it is quite common that we only interact with a small portion of the company and have little or no knowledge of the company as a whole. Why does this matter?  Two examples:

  • When a country is having consultations on topics such as open access and copyright, a complex company like SpringerNature may be lobbying for opposing positions. SpringerOpen staff may only be aware of the open access position.
  • The nature of the mix of sub-companies owned by SpringerNature is such that SpringerOpen open access policies such as open licensing might be feeding commercial profit interests at another sub-company such as macmillan education without the knowledge of SpringerOpen staff, authors, and their acquaintances. For example, I would be surprised if SpringerNature sent staff from macmillan education to talk about downstream benefits of commercial re-use in textbook sales and rentals at OASPA or other open access / open education conferences. If open access advocates refer exclusively to downstream open educational uses of openly licensed material, it is not in the best financial interests of the parent company to discuss the potential for downstream toll access re-use.

Original post:

SpringerNature, owner of Springer Open, Nature, and BioMedCentral, positions itself as a leader in the open access movement. However, Springer, Nature, and BMC are only 3 of the brands of the parent company, SpringerNature Group. The purpose of this post is to raise awareness about the dual approach of the parent company with respect to copyright and intellectual property – positioning itself as both a leader in open access and a leader in IP maximization, and to encourage those with a sincere interest in the goal of open access to learn about, and question, organizations with an interest in serving this area.

While the SpringerNature site today states that it is:

“A new force in research publishing
Springer Nature is the world’s largest academic book publisher, publisher of the world’s most influential journals, and a pioneer in the field of open research” (from: https://group.springernature.com/gp/group

…another of the company’s brands, Macmillan, is sending letters to creators complaining that library lending is cannibalizing sales, and is further restricting paid library use of works. See the Canadian Urban Libraries’ Council on this matter here:
http://www.culc.ca/cms_lib/CULC%20Statement%20on%20Macmillan%20US%20Lending.pdf

Following are the brands listed on the SpringerNature group site as of today:

Our brand sites
Springer
Nature Research
BiomedCentral
Palgrave Macmillan
Macmillan Education
Springer Healthcare
Scientific American

In addition to open access, this company is involved in toll access textbook publishing and rentals and educational services that appear to compete with public education services. Even among the 3 brands involved in open access, 2 (Springer and Nature Research) have a long history of making money through subscriptions and sales. Even today, this is probably a much larger source of income than open access, and one of these brands’ main assets is copyright ownership of a large corpus of works.

To understand the potential futures of open access, it is important to understand the nature of the players involved. The friendly staff of Springer Open are no doubt a pleasure to work with for people in the OA movement, and sincere in their embrace of OA. However, when they tell you that true open access requires open licensing granting blanket downstream permission for commercial uses, they might not be aware that some of these commercial uses could involve for-profit textbook sales and rentals.

Unlike Elsevier, SpringerNatureGroup does not post financial information on its website. As a publicly traded corporation, Elsevier is obliged to provide this kind of transparency, including profits and business strategy. The corporation as a form of business can be viewed as an early form of openness in business; anyone can buy shares and participate in profits and decision-making. Springer is privately owned, and has no such obligation. In this respect, Springer is far less open than Elsevier.

Originally posted on the Global Open Access List and the Radical Open Access List.

Springer Open: ceased, now hybrid, OA identification challenges

Abstract

SpringerNature, owner of Nature Publishing Group, Springer Open, and BioMedCentral, is the world’s largest fully open access journal publisher as measured by number of journals. The purpose of this post is to underscore what appears to be a significant open access attrition rate at SpringerOpen (16% OA attrition in the past few years) and raise questions about challenges to finding and identifying these journals as open access. Ceased journals that were always open access are listed on the SpringerLink (mostly subscriptions) site, not the SpringerOpen website. Subscriptions articles are clearly marked as such; the OA status of an article is not stated on the journal home page. Information provided by a library about License Terms may not mention or resemble a CC license.

Update July 23: the following analysis missed two ceased journals, Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering and China Journal of Economic Research. Unlike the other titles, China Journal of Economic Research is not listed on SpringerLink, although a journal home page can be found through a Google Search. No content is available online and the journal’s default license while publishing is not clear. Adding this title makes a small difference to the numbers and percentages. These titles are not included in the working dataset but will be included in the main file.

Details

We have been tracking 258 Springer Open titles up to 2018 (excluding journals new in 2019 and journals now listed under BioMedCentral). Of these, 33 (13%) have ceased publication and 7 (3%) are now hybrid journals, combining subscriptions and optional open access (Open Choice) articles. Together, these two categories add up to a combined OA attrition rate of 16%.

Finding the titles and/or identifying the open access status of journals and articles could be challenging. For example, 38 of the 40 journals are listed on the main SpringerLink site; none are listed on the Springer Open site. The SpringerLink site includes thousands of journals (a SpringerLink search for “journal” yields over 3,500 results), almost all of which are subscriptions based.

For example, if you click on the link to now ceased Earth Perspectives from the SpringerLink website, while as pictured on the bottom right hand side there is a link to the open access collection there is no prominent mention of the open access status of this journal. Earth_Perspectives_1

Clicking on the latest volume, as shown, brings up a list of articles in the volume, with no indication at this stage that the articles are open access. Earth_Perspectives_2.

Once you get to the actual article, the open access status is stated clearly at the top and the copyright link goes to the CC-BY license (all ceased titles were licensed CC-BY).

18 of the 32 ceased titles were listed in DOAJ in 2018; only 2 are listed in DOAJ as of Jan. 31, 2019.

Journals ceased by year
2015 1
2016 6
2017 10
2018 8
2019 1
not stated 7
Grand Total 33

As illustrated by the table above, most of these journals ceased quite recently. Authors who selected a journal for publication in 2017 or 2018 because it was on the Springer Open website and/or in DOAJ might be surprised to know that their journal has been de-listed by these sites, perhaps shortly after their article was published.

When I look up the titles through the University of Ottawa library’s A to Z journal list, the journals are identified as open or free access, however the link to the License Terms of Use, while they indicate broad use, are very different from CC-BY. For example, the answer to the question: “Can I post a copy in a course management system?” is: “The licensee and authorized users may incorporate parts of the licensed materials in Virtual Campus.” There is no indication of the CC license. As an aside, this is not meant as a critique; identifying an entire journal as under one CC license might solve some problems, but would likely create others.

Some examples of problems arising from identifying CC licensing at a journal level

  • third party content is generally under a different license than an article or journal
  • different articles and different types of content may have different licenses
  • the journal may have changed its default license over time; in the case of journals that began publishing before CC licenses became available, this is almost always the case

6 of the 7 journals that are now hybrid are clearly hybrid, mixing open access and subscriptions content. In the list of articles in a particular volume, subscription articles are clearly marked with a lock, and lead to information that an article can be purchased for $39.95, rented through DeepDyve, or subscribed to. There is no open access note or symbol for open access content, although on the bottom right hand of the screen there is a link to an open access collection search, and items are marked as open access once the reader gets to the article level.

Following are lists of the ceased and hybrid publications, remember if you would like to look them up, use SpringerLink site, not the Springer Open site:

Ceased

Applied Informatics
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health
Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology
China Journal of Economic Research
Computational Cognitive Science
Decision Analytics
Earth Perspectives — Transdisciplinarity Enabled
Earthquake Science
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems
Fields Mathematics Education Journal
In Silico Cell and Tissue Science
Infrastructure Complexity
International Journal of Dharma Studies
Journal of Chinese Management
Journal of Chinese Studies
Journal of Computational Surgery
Journal of Frugal Innovation
Journal of Solid State Lighting
Journal of Trust Management
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications
Lingua Sinica
Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies
Multilingual Education
mUX: The Journal of Mobile User Experience
Psychology of Well-Being
Robotics and Biomimetics
SpringerPlus
Sustainable Chemical Processes
Technology, Innovation and Education
Textiles and Clothing Sustainability
The Journal of Global Positioning Systems
Zoological Studies

Now hybrid

Fire Science Reviews (technically open access predecessor to hybrid Fire Technology)
In Silico Pharmacology
Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation
Maritime Studies
Research in the Mathematical Sciences
Science China Life Sciences
Journal of Remanufacturing

Full but messy, working, undocumented data is available for download here:

Springer_ceased_2019

Springer_now_hybrid_2019

This is only one aspect of the Springer Open 2019 analysis.

For earlier posts on Springer, see https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/?s=springer&submit=Search

SpringerOpen: about 40% of journals fully sponsored, good clear language examples

In April when we first gathered APC information for SpringerOpen we found many titles with links not working to uncover details. Over the past week I’ve noticed that details have been added and can now confirm that about 40% of the 235 SpringerOpen titles listed on the publisher’s website are fully sponsored with no article processing charges. In most cases, the language about journal sponsorship is very clear and this could be a model for other publishers. There are some minor variations in wording between journals and sponsors. Following are a few examples of different expressions, all copied from the website of the journal. A complete list of journals with clear language indicating no article processing fees due to full sponsorship, with the corresponding language, follows further on.

Another aspect of SpringerOpen which might be a model for other publishers is the feature of a special tab for the sponsoring institution or society. This appears to me to be a good practice both from the perspective of transparency and to add value back to the sponsor in the form of promotion.

From the chemistry journal 3biotech (see About the Journal / King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology tab)

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) is an independent scientific organization administratively reporting to the Prime Minister. KACST is both the Saudi Arabian national science agency and its national laboratories. The science agency function involves science and technology policy making, data collection, funding of external research, and services such as the patent office. KACST partnered with Springer to publish a suite of international journals to foster the development of key applied technologies, providing a forum for the dissemination of research advances and successes from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the world. KACST provide funds to cover all publication costs of these journals, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors.

From the City, Territory and Architecture home page:

The publication costs for articles in City, Territory and Architecture are covered by Università degli Studi Sassari, authors do not need to pay an article processing charge

From the International Journal of Implant Dentistry home page:

International Journal of Implant Dentistry is affiliated with German Society of Oral Implantology (DGI) and the Japanese Society of Oral Implantology (JSOI). Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in International Journal of Implant Dentistry.

A full list of the 85 journals listed on the SpringerOpen website with very clear language indicating that there are no article processing charges due to journal sponsorship, with the wording used by each journal, follows. For more details please see the SpringerOpen journal list. In addition to these 85 titles, there are 12 additional journals where I was not able to assess whether there is an APC or not (I classify these as “cost not found”), and 7 journals, of which 3 involve society or institutional sponsorship, that appear to be in the process of developing APCs with costs not specified (e.g. Fees and Funding page says “we are currently rebuilding this website), or in the case of Lingua Sinica, fees are waived for the inaugural year of 2015-2016. One sponsored journal, Zoological Studies, has transferred to a different publisher. It will be interesting to observe what happens with this model over the next few years. This strategy of partnering with sponsoring societies and institutions is similar to what we are seeing this year with De Gruyter Open as reported earlier in english and français

Journal Title Language indicating sponsorship / no publication fee
3 Biotech King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) is an independent scientific organization administratively reporting to the Prime Minister. KACST is both the Saudi Arabian national science agency and its national laboratories. The science agency function involves science and technology policy making, data collection, funding of external research, and services such as the patent office. KACST partnered with Springer to publish a suite of international journals to foster the development of key applied technologies, providing a forum for the dissemination of research advances and successes from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the world. KACST provide funds to cover all publication costs of these journals, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors.
Applied Nanoscience supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Applied Petrochemical Research supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Applied Water Science supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) free to submit and free to read for all
Asian Journal of German and European Studies DAAD from the Federal Foreign Office. All Responsibility for Publication is taken by The Centre for German and European Studies, Chung Ang University.
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility Fees and funding: The publication costs for Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility are covered by the Sustainability Management Research Institute (Inha University, Korea), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education Fees and funding:

The publication costs for Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education are covered by the Research Center for Modern Linguistics and Foreign Language Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.

Brain Informatics The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges. No sponsor listed.
Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences is a fully sponsored, peer-reviewed open access journal. The Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences was launched by King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Business Research publication costs for articles published in Business Research are covered by the German Academic Association of Business Research, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
China Finance and Economic Review The publication costs for China Finance and Economic Review are covered by the National Academy of Economic Strategy, CASS, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
China Journal of Economic Research The publication costs for articles in China Journal of Economic Research are covered by the Centre for Economic Research, Shandong University, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
City, Territory and Architecture The publication costs for articles in City, Territory and Architecture are covered by Università degli Studi Sassari, authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
Clinical Phytoscience The publication costs for the articles published in Clinical Phytoscience are sponsored by the Phytoneering Foundation, so authors do not need to pay the article processing charge
Comparative Migration Studies The publication costs for Comparative Migration Studies are covered by IMISCOE, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Complex & Intelligent Systems Complex & Intelligent Systems is an Open Access journal  supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by KACST. Authors can publish in the journal without any charges.
Computational Cognitive Science The publication costs for Computational Cognitive Science are covered by the Centre for Knowledge & Interaction Technology, Flinders University, Australia, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Computational Visual Media This is an open access journal, published quarterly by Tsinghua University Press and Springer. The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored by Tsinghua University, China. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Data Science and Engineering The open access fees (article-processing charges) are fully sponsored. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training The publication costs for Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training are covered by Staatssekretariat für Bildung, Forschung und Innovation (SBFI), Bern, Switzerland, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
European Journal of Futures Research The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Institut Futur (Free University Berlin), the Center for Futures Studies (Salzburg University of Applied Sciences) and the Foundation for Future Studies – an initiative of British American Tobacco, Hamburg.Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Fashion and Textiles associated with the The Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles. The journal enjoys the full support of the KSCT, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Fields Mathematics Education Journal The publication costs for Fields Mathematics Education Journal are covered by The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Financial Innovation The publication costs for Financial Innovation are covered by Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Forest Ecosystems The publication costs for Forest Ecosystems are covered by Beijing Forestry University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Functional Linguistics The publication costs for Functional Linguistics are covered by M.A.K. Halliday Library, School of Foreign Languages, Sun Yat-sen University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Genus The publication costs for Genus: Journal of Population Sciences are covered by Sapienza University, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Geothermal Energy The publication costs for Geothermal Energy are covered by Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ; Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences; and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences The publication costs for Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences are covered by Korea Information Processing Society – Computer Software Research Group, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Aquatic Research fully sponsored – Islamic Azad University
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering (IJASE) The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy The publication costs for International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy are covered by Korea Institute of Child Care and Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Journal of Dharma Studies The publication costs for International Journal of Dharma Studies are covered by the Center for Dharma Studies at the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education The publication costs for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education are covered by the journal, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge..edited by the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya and the Universidad de los Andes (Colombia).
International Journal of Geo-Engineering The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Korean Geotechnical Society. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
International Journal of Implant Dentistry International Journal of Implant Dentistry is affiliated with German Society of Oral Implantology (DGI) and the Japanese Society of Oral Implantology (JSOI). Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in International Journal of Implant Dentistry.
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering The article-processing charges for this journal are kindly sponsored by the University of Malaya, Malaysia. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture The International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture is a peer-reviewed open access journal published under the brand SpringerOpen, covering all aspects of recycling of organic waste. It is fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in.
International Nano Letters fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore, it is both free to read and free to publish in International Nano Letters.
IZA Journal of European Labor Studies The publication costs for IZA Journal of European Labor Studies are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor & Development The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor & Development are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor Economics The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor Economics are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Labor Policy The publication costs for IZA Journal of Labor Policy are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
IZA Journal of Migration The publication costs for IZA Journal of Migration are covered by IZA – Institute for the Study of Labor, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing at Tsinghua University. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges
Journal of Analytical Science and Technology The publication costs for Journal of Analytical Science and Technology are covered by the journal, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics – the official journal of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS). The Article Processing Charges (APC) are fully sponsored by EPOS.
Journal of Chinese Management The publication costs for Journal of Chinese Management are covered by the China Association for Social & Economic System Analysis Research, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge
Journal of Economic Structures Message on journal home page: Due to a generous grant by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), we will waive article processing charges (APCs) for all accepted articles in the Journal of Economic Structures. The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS). Message under Fees and funding: The publication costs for Journal of Economic Structures are covered by Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research Society affiliation: Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research is affiliated with the Faculty of Entrepreneurship and the UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship at the University of Tehran. The publication costs for Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research are covered by the University of Tehran, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Industrial Engineering International The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Journal of International Humanitarian Action The publication costs for Journal of International Humanitarian Action are covered by the Network On Humanitarian Action, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy Open access sponsored by the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute
Journal of Modern Transportation fully sponsored: Southwest Jiaotong University
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Journal of Organization Design The publication costs for Journal of Organization Design are covered by the Organizational Design Community, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge. This has been made possible by a generous grant from the Department of Management, Aarhus University.
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright.
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology The Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology is a quarterly Open Access journal (supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics It is fully supported by the Islamic Azad University, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in.
Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications The publication costs for Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications are covered by the International Consortium for Uncertainty Theory (ICUT) and Hebei University of Engineering, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Large-scale Assessments in Education The publication costs for Large-scale Assessments in Education are covered by IEA-ETS Research Institute, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge
Latin American Economic Review The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by CIDE. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges. CIDE =(Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas)
Life Sciences, Society and Policy The publication costs for Life Sciences, Society and Policy are covered by Centre for Society and the Life Sciences, Radboud University, the Netherlands and Economic and Social Research Council, Genomics Network, UK, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy supported by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Mathematical Sciences The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies The publication costs for Mathematics-in-Industry Case Studies are covered by The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Micro and Nano Systems Letters The publication costs for Micro and Nano Systems Letters are covered by The Society of Micro and Nano Systems, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics Authors do not need to pay an article processing charge for publication in Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics. Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics is an official journal of the German society of child and adolescent medicine (DGKJ).
Nano Convergence The publication costs for Nano Convergence are covered by the Korea Nano Technology Research Society, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Nano-Micro Letters The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited (Scion). New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science is owned by Scion. The publication costs for articles in New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science are covered by Scion, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.
Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry The publication costs for the Pacific Journal of Mathematics for Industry are covered by the Institute of Mathematics for Industry, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Progress in Biomaterials The journal is associated with the Islamic Azad University (IAU). It enjoys the full support of the IAU, who provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.
Progress in Orthodontics All accepted articles are published free of charge. Progress in Orthodontics is associated with the Italian Society of Orthodontics (SIDO)
Protein & Cell The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by Higher Education Press, Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Biophysical Society of China. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning The publication costs for Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning are covered by The Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Science China Life Sciences The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
SERIEs The open access fees for this journal are kindly sponsored by the Spanish Economic Association. By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright and assign only the exclusive right to any commercial use of the article to Springer.
Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction By publishing with open access you can keep the copyright. The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by the British Limb reconstruction Society. Authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
The Journal of Chinese Sociology The publication costs for The Journal of Chinese Sociology are covered by Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
The Journal of Global Positioning Systems The publication costs for The Journal of Global Positioning Systems are covered by The International Association of Chinese Professionals in Global Positioning Systems, so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Urban Rail Transit The open access fees (article-processing charges) for this journal are kindly sponsored by Beijing Urban Rapid Rail Transit Press Co. Ltd., authors can publish in the journal without any additional charges.
Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy The publication costs for Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy are covered by Wilf Malcolm Institute of Educational Research, University of Waikato (NZ); Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia; Institute of Education, Massey University (NZ); College of Educational Studies, Chapman University (USA); Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University (Denmark); Faculty of Education, University of Auckland (NZ); Department of Informatics and Computing, University of Applied Sciences (Croatia), so authors do not need to pay an article-processing charge.
Vietnam Journal of Computer Science The Vietnam Journal of Computer Science is published in cooperation with the Nguyen Tat Thanh University, which provide funds to cover all costs of publication, including the Article Processing Charges (APC’s) for all authors. Therefore the journal is both free to read and free to publish in for everyone.

 

SpringerOpen: 2015-2016 APCs Comparison

Update May 9: many of the journals with links to APC information not working in April are now working, so that we can confirm that about 40% of SpringerOpen journals are fully sponsored and do not charge article processing fees.

SpringerOpen is an Open Access (OA) publisher that requires Article Processing Charges (APCs) for most journals. This publisher displays APCs in three currencies: pound sterling (GBP), US dollar (USD) and Euro (EUR).
SpringerOpen is the fourth largest OA journal in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) with 170 journals listed. As SpringerOpen is one of the largest OA publishers it must be examined in order to gain insight into future APC trends.

2015/2016

151 matching journals from 2015 and 2016 were compared in USD. When the journals not charging APCs were removed, the average APC for 2015 was $1,166 and is $1,239 in 2016.  The lowest APC for 2015 was $125 for Agricultural and Food Economics. In 2016, the lowest APC is $430 for two journals: Advanced Modeling and Simulation in Engineering Sciences and Botanical Studies. The mode APC was $1,085 for both 2015 and 2016.  The highest APC in 2015 was $1,935 for AMB Express and in 2016 is $2,500 for AAPS Open.

Only one journal’s APC decreased from 2015: Fire Science Reviews was charging $1,420 in 2015 and is now charging $1,155 (-19%) in 2016. 38 journals did not charge APCs in 2015, and still do not charge them in 2016. 32 journals are charging the same amount as they were in 2015. A little more than half of the journals (77/151) have increased their APCs. Most of those charging more (54/77), increased by 10% or less.

Screenshot (103)